Use of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) has been recommended to the landscape service industry as a best management practice for establishing landscape plants. However, application practices vary considerably among professionals and recommendations are lacking for the appropriate type (tablet vs. granular), application rate, and timing of CRF to establish herbaceous perennials. In this study, cigar plant (Cuphea ignea), daylily (Hemerocallis ‘Stella de Oro’), gaura (Gaura lindheimeri ‘Siskiyou Pink’), lantana (Lantana camara ‘New Gold’), mexican heather (Cuphea hyssopifolia), purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), and rudbeckia (Rudbeckia fulgida ‘Goldsturm’) were fertilized with granular CRF (GF) 15N–3.9P–10K (8 to 9 month) at 0, 1, 2, or 4 lb/1000 ft2 nitrogen (N) at transplant (no fertilization, GF1, GF2, and GF4, respectively), a split application of GF with 1 lb/1000 ft2 N applied at transplant and 1 lb/1000 ft2 N applied 5-months later (GF2-split), or tablet CRF 16N–3.5P–10K (8 to 9 months) at two tablets per plant (7.5 g) at transplant (TF2). Plant size and visual quality (VQ) at 5 months after transplant (MAT) were improved by fertilization for all perennials except ‘Stella de Oro’ daylily. Compared to GF2, GF4 improved the growth of perennials of larger size and greater biomass production (i.e., cigar plant), but did not further improve their VQ. All perennials grown with TF2 had similar size and quality as those grown with GF2 at 5 MAT. At 15 MAT, no difference was found among fertilizer treatments for surviving perennials except cigar plant. Split application (GF2-split) did not improve overwinter survival or second-year plant growth and quality for most species when compared with GF2. On the basis of these results, we recommend applying two tablets (7.5 g) of 16N–3.5P–10K per plant at transplant to establish the perennials tested in this study.
Yan Chen, Regina P. Bracy, Allen D. Owings and Joey P. Quebedeaux
Pamela J. Paulsen and David Hensley
Landscape maintenance in Hawaii occurs year round. Many popular groundcovers are pruned monthly, some twice monthly. This increases labor costs and creates large amounts of waste. Several rates of five commercial growth regulators (cimectacarb, flurprimidol, mefluidide, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole) were applied to several groundcovers commonly grown in Hawaii. Species used include Cuphea hyssopifolia, Evolvulus glomeratus, Lantana montevidensis, Myoporum spp., and Wedelia trilobata. Studies were conducted in the shadehouse with potted plants and in the field with established plants. Rates, response, and method of application (spray or soil drench) for each product were evaluated. Growth, length of control, and phytotoxicity were measured. Flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole showed the greatest control for the most species. Flurprimidol and paclobutrazol controlled growth for the longest time, up to 4 months for some species. However, these materials resulted in the greatest amount of damage, even at low rates. Cimectacarb controlled growth of fewer species, while mefluidide caused the least growth reduction for all species.
G.W. Krewer, K.S. Delaplane and P.A. Thomas
Bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of mostly self-sterile rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade). Annual bee colonies start from solitary overwintered queens who emerge in near-synchrony with rabbiteye blueberry bloom. Although colony populations may reach several hundred individuals by midsummer, in early spring most Bombus visiting rabbiteye blueberry are queens reared the previous season. Thus, practices that encourage production of queens in summer may increase populations of blueberry pollinators the next spring. In south Georgia, midsummer shortages of nectar-yielding plants may nutritionally limit queen production, and cultured bee forages may help overcome this deficiency. Candidate plants must not compete with the crop for pollinators, and they must be attractive to bees, easy to grow, vigorous, and non-invasive. In 3 years of trials, the following plants have shown promise as supplemental bumblebee forages in south Georgia: Althea (Hibiscus syriacus), abelia (Abelia ×grandifolia), vitex (Vitex agnuscastus), red clover (Trifolium pratense perenne), Mexican heather (Cuphea hyssopifolia), monkey grass (Liriope muscari), summer sweet (Clethra alnifolia), and giant sunflower (Helianthus giganteus).
James H. Aldrich and Jeffrey G. Norcini
Postemergence control of Phyllanthus urinaria L. (chamberbitter) in nursery and landscape plantings has been primarily limited to hand-weeding. Prodiamine was evaluated for postemergence control of chamberbitter and phytotoxicity to containerized ornamentals. On 20 June 1995, prodiamine at 0, 1.68, 3.36, or 6.72 kg a.i./ha was applied over-the-top to immature chamberbitter growing in 3.8-L containers of established Buddleia davidii Franch. `White Bouquet' Cuphea hyssopifolia HBK. `Desert Snow', Lantana camara L. `Irene', and Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. `Lavender Weeping'. Weed-free checks were included. Applications were made with a compressed air backpack sprayer. There were four replications per treatment placed in a randomized complete block design by species. Plants were established and maintained on a container bed under full sun and overhead irrigation. Growth of and phytotoxicity to the ornamentals species, and percent coverage and number of chamberbitter, were recorded periodically for 14 weeks after treatment (WAT). Chamberbitter shoots were harvested for dry weight analysis 14 WAT. Prodiamine provided some postemergence control of chamberbitter. However, Cuphea and both Lantana species exhibited leaf distortion and/or delayed flowering.
Raul I. Cabrera, L. Rahman, Genhua Niu, Cynthia McKenney and Wayne Mackay
In this preliminary study, we evaluated the salinity tolerance of selected herbaceous perennials. Liners of Rudbeckia hirta `Becky Orange', Phlox paniculata `John Fanick', Coreopsis grandiflora `Early Sunrise', Lantana ×hybrida `New Gold' and Cuphea hyssopifolia `Allyson' were transplanted to 4-gal plastic containers filled with peat moss: pine bark: sand (3:1:1) medium amended with dolomite, Micromax and Osmocote 18-6-12 (at 2, 0.6, and 6 kg·m3, respectively). The plants were irrigated for 14 weeks with tap water containing 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mM of NaCl: CaCl2 salt mixture (2:1 molar ratio). Increasing salt stress had differential effects on plant growth and quality, with Rudbeckia and Phlox being the most adversely affected even by the lowest salt treatment of 1.5 mM, with dry weight reductions of ∼25% compared to the controls. Conversely, Lantana and Cuphea tolerated extremely well salinity up to 12 mM, where dry weight reductions were less than 10% of the nonsalinized controls. The Lantana and Cuphea plants also presented the lowest leaf Cl accumulation with increasing salinity, whereas Coreopsis showed the highest Cl accumulations at any salinity level. Plots of leaf Cl concentration against dry weights showed steeply declining relationships for Rudbeckia and Phlox plants, confirming our observations and assessment that these species are to be considered salt-sensitive. Leaf Na accumulation is currently being analyzed.
Shasha Wu, Youping Sun and Genhua Niu
To provide more species for landscapes where poor-quality irrigation water is used, salt tolerance of commonly used landscape plants should be characterized. Nine ornamental species, including six herbaceous and three woody, were irrigated with nutrient solution at electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control) or saline solution at EC of 5.0 or 10.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5 or EC 10) for 8 weeks and their growth and physiological responses were determined. Although growth was reduced in orange peel jessamine (Cestrum ‘Orange Peel’) and mexican hummingbird bush (Dicliptera suberecta) as salinity increased, no obvious signs of stress or injury were observed, indicating that orange peel jessamine and mexican hummingbird bush were the most salt tolerant. Flame acanthus (Anisacanthus quadrifidus var. wrightii), rock rose (Pavonia lasiopetala), and ‘Dark knight’ bluebeard (Caryopteris ×clandonensis ‘Dark Knight’) had more growth reduction than that of orange peel jessamine and mexican hummingbird bush with minimal or no foliar damage in EC 5 and slight foliar damage in EC 10. Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) and mexican false heather (Cuphea hyssopifolia) exhibited mortality rates of 30% and 20%, severe foliar damage, and greater than 70% reduction in leaf area and dry weight in EC 10 compared with their respective controls. Although the growth reductions in butterfly blue (Scabiosa columbaria) were not as great as cardinal flower and mexican false heather, 40% of butterfly blue plants were dead with moderate foliar damage in EC 10. Therefore, cardinal flower, mexican false heather, and butterfly blue plants were considered as moderately salt sensitive. Eastern red columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) was the most salt sensitive among the species investigated with moderate foliar damage in EC 5 and all plants died in EC 10. Four out of the nine species tested had significant differences in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g s), and/or relative chlorophyll content between the control and EC 10, and the difference varied with species. Shoot ion concentrations of the nine ornamentals were also affected by salinity levels and varied among species.
Kimberly A. Moore, Amy L. Shober, Gitta Hasing, Christine Wiese and Nancy G. West
), ‘Siskiyou Pink’ gaura ( Oenothera lindheimeri ), ‘New Gold’ lantana ( Lantana camara ), mexican heather ( Cuphea hyssopifolia ), purple coneflower ( Echinacea purpurea ), and ‘Goldsturm’ rudbeckia ( Rudbeckia fulgida )] when grown in raised beds containing
Qiang Liu, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, James Altland, Lifei Chen and Lijuan Jiang
EC in Cuphea hyssopifolia . Sun et al. (2015) also observed that K level increased significantly with increasing EC in the leaves of Phlox paniculata ‘John Fanick’ and P. paniculata ‘Texas Pink’ plants. Maintenance of adequate Ca is essential
Gitta Shurberg, Amy L. Shober, Christine Wiese, Geoffrey Denny, Gary W. Knox, Kimberly A. Moore and Mihai C. Giurcanu
. In a similar study, Chen et al. (2011) reported positive linear relationships between N rates (0, 1, 2, and 4 lb/1000 ft 2 ) and SI for cigar plant, ‘Siskiyou Pink’ gaura ( Gaura lindheimeri ), lantana, mexican heather ( Cuphea hyssopifolia