Bacterial spot of pumpkin, incited by X. cucurbitae (ex Bryan) Vauterin et al. (1995) [syn. Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson pv. c ucurbitae (Bryan) Dye], has become one of the most important diseases of pumpkin [ Cucurbita pepo L. and
Abbasali Ravanlou and Mohammad Babadoost
J.X. Zhang, B.D. Bruton, and C.L. Biles
Phomopsis cucurbitae is a latent infecting pathogen that infects unripe muskmelon fruit, but causes decay after harvest. This fungus causes severe losses during muskmelon fruit storage and marketing in the U.S., Japan, and some Central American countries. Previous studies showed that the fungus produced the cell wall-degrading enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) in both culture and muskmelon fruit tissue. The role of P. cucurbitae PG in the fruit decay process and its relation to latent infection is not well-understood. A prominent PG isozyme produced by the fungus in decayed fruit was purified to homogeneity by a sequence of extraction, ultrafiltration, preparative isoelectric focusing, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. This isozyme exhibited endo-activity, a molecular weight of 54 kDa according to SDS-PAGE, and a pI of 4.2 based on IEF-PAGE. Isozyme activity was optimal at 40–45°C and pH 5.0. It had a Km of 44.7 g/ml and a Vmax of 0.313. The purified isozyme also effectively macerated mature muskmelon fruit tissues. This isozyme was the most prominent of the PG isozymes produced by P. cucurbitae in decaying fruit, and may play an important role in postharvest decay.
Johan Desaeger and Alex Csinos
The effects of drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of vegetable seedlings were investigated in three separate tests in Tifton, Ga. Tests were conducted in Spring 2002, Fall 2002, and Spring 2003. Phytotoxicity of 1,3-D + chloropicrin was induced in the 2002 tests by applying progressively higher rates (0 to 374 L·ha–1) of drip-irrigated InLine (an emulsifiable formulation (EC) containing 60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% chloropicrin) and planting vegetable seedlings within four days after application. Vegetables evaluated were tomato, pepper and cucumber (Spring 2002), and tomato and squash (Fall 2002). In Spring 2003, the effects of 1,3-D formulation (InLine versus Telone EC, an EC containing 94% 1,3-D), plastic mulch type [low density polyethylene (LDPE) versus virtually impermeable film (VIF)] and drip tape configuration (one versus two drip tapes) on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of tomato were investigated. Tomato was planted after the recommended 3-week waiting period. Fumigant concentrations in soil were measured using Gastec detection tubes at 1 to 4 days after drip fumigation in all three tests. Measured fumigant soil gas concentrations were correlated with fumigant application rates in Spring 2002, but not in Fall 2002. Vegetables were visibly affected by residual fumigant levels in the soil and showed symptoms such as leaf chlorosis (cucumber, squash and pepper), leaf bronzing (tomato) and stem browning and stunting (all crops). Fumigant soil air levels were negatively and linearly correlated with different plant growth parameters, in particular plant vigor. The cucurbit crops showed an immediate response and high mortality within 1 week after planting. Surviving plants recovered well in fall. The solanaceous crops showed a more delayed response and lower mortality rates. However, phytotoxic effects with tomato and pepper were more persistent and plants did not seem to recover with time. Overall, fumigant residue levels and potential phytotoxicity were greater in spring than in fall. Greater fumigant soil concentrations were measured under VIF as compared to LDPE plastic mulch. The effect of drip-tape configuration varied with the type of plastic mulch that was used. The double-tape treatment resulted in lower fumigant levels at the bed center under LDPE mulch, and higher fumigant levels at the bed shoulder under VIF mulch. The formulation containing 94% 1,3-D resulted in higher soil fumigant levels as compared to the formulation containing 61% 1,3-D and 33% chloropicrin, especially with VIF mulch. Early plant vigor of tomato was negatively correlated with fumigant soil gas levels, and was especially poor following drip fumigation with 94% 1,3-D under VIF mulch.
Jason Cavatorta, George Moriarty, Mark Henning, Michael Glos, Mary Kreitinger, Henry M. Munger, and Molly Jahn
alternata ), ulocladium leaf spot ( Ulocladium cucurbitae ), target leaf spot ( Corynespora cassiicola) , WMV, PRSV, and ZYMV. ‘Marketmore 76’ contains high levels of cucurbitacins that provide resistance to spider mites ( Tetranychus urticae ). In contrast
Christian A. Wyenandt, Richard M. Riedel, Landon H. Rhodes, Mark A. Bennett, and Stephen G.P. Nameth
Fusarium fruit rot is an important soil-borne fungal disease of cucurbit crops ( Zitter et al., 1996 ). Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 was the most common species causing fruit rot of pumpkin in a survey of commercial fields in Ohio
Toshio Shibuya, Kaori Itagaki, Motoaki Tojo, Ryosuke Endo, and Yoshiaki Kitaya
:FR fluorescent light on the resistance of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ) seedlings to PM ( Sphaerotheca cucurbitae ) in an inoculation test. Materials and Methods Expt. 1 Comparison of powdery mildew resistance of seedlings grown under high and low red
E.R. Champaco, R.D. Martyn, and M.E. Miller
Rotting muskmelon fruits commonly are associated with commercial fields that are affected by the root rot/vine decline disease syndrome found in southern Texas. Four isolates of Fusarium solani previously shown to be either weakly pathogenic or nonpathogenic to muskmelon seedlings caused extensive rot on mechanically wounded muskmelon fruits. Two of these isolates caused more extensive fruit rot than either F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. f. sp. cucurbitae W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. or F. oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. melonis (Leach & Currence) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans., causal agents of fusarium crown and foot rot of cucurbits and fusarium wilt of muskmelon, respectively. In other tests, root-dip inoculation of seedlings showed that all muskmelon cultigens included in this study and the breeding line MR-1 were susceptible to a California and an Arkansas strain of F. s. f. sp. cucurbitae race 1.
Dermot P. Coyne, Lisa Sutton, and Debra Fujimoto
No sources of resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae (X.c.c.) in the Cucurbita species have been reported. Cultivars, breeding lines, landraces, and PI lines of 5 Cucurbita species were screened for resistance to X.c.c. in 3 greenhouse tests (GH). A `florist`s frog' was used to inoculate the first fully expanded leaves using a X.c.c. suspension (107 CFU/ml). The disease reaction was recorded as the percentage of inoculated leaf area with necrotic lesions and/or chlorosis. Butternut (b n) breeding lines were also evaluated for reaction to X.c.c. under uniform natural in feetion in 2 field (F) trials. A randomized complete block design was used in all GH and F experiments. C. moschata Nebr. BN PM1-88-8 and C. martinezii had high resistance to X.c.c. All other entries in all tests were susceptible. BN PM-88-8 is an early maturing small stable (no crookneck fruit) near-round BN type squash. The fruit are resistant to black–rot, but the leaves are susceptible to powdery mildew. BN PM-88-8 is ideal for microwave cooking because of its near-round shape permitting more uniform cooking. Release is expected in 1990.
Jennifer Tillman, Ajay Nair, Mark Gleason, and Jean Batzer
Plastic mulch is often used in cucurbit production, but it has negative soil health and environmental implications due to use of tillage for installation and generation of plastic waste. This 2-year study aimed to find a viable alternative to plastic mulch through the use of strip tillage and rowcovers, as rowcovers could help minimize yield loss from strip tillage by providing warmer air and soil as well as providing insect protection. A split-plot design was used in both conventionally and organically managed summer squash (Cucurbita pepo), with production system as the whole-plot factor [conventional tillage with black plastic mulch also referred to as plasticulture (PL) and strip tillage into rolled cereal rye (Secale cereale) (ST)] and rowcover use as the subplot factor (rowcover until anthesis or no rowcover). Rowcovers reduced the incidence of squash vine borer (Melittia cucurbitae) and eliminated the need for insecticide sprays to control this insect pest, but did not reduce the incidence of yellow vine decline or the sprays needed to control squash bug (Anasa tristis). Rowcovers increased average air temperature by 1.6 to 4.0 °C and increased maximum air temperature by up to 10.3 °C. Rowcovers decreased average light intensity by 33% to 39%. Though soil temperature in PL tended to be higher than in ST, in 1-year rowcovers helped bridge the gap. Plant biomass was consistently higher in the PL than the ST system. Averaged across rowcover treatments, plants in PL had higher marketable yields than those in ST; however, the use of rowcovers often led to comparable yields between the production system treatments. Rowcover was a significant factor explaining marketable yield for the organically managed fields both years. There was no consistent effect of production system on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Based on our results, strip tillage into rolled rye could be a viable alternative to plasticulture for summer squash production in Iowa, and rowcovers could help increase yields in ST especially in an organic management system.
Marisa M. Wall
for Mediterranean [ Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)], melon [ Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet)], and oriental fruit flies [ Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)] ( Armstrong, 1983 , 2001 ). However, quarantine inspections for the presence of regulated