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Bao-Zhong Yuan, Zhi-Long Bie, and Jie Sun

The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.), which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, is a commonly consumed vegetable. It is an economically important crop that is widely cultivated throughout the world. Cucumber plants often experience biotic and

Open access

R. L. Lower, James Nienhuis, and C. H. Miller

Abstract

Parents, F1, F2 and backcross generations of a cross between a Cucumis sativus L. gynoecious inbred, GY 14, and a selection of Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii (R.) Alef. were evaluated for several horticultural characteristics. Generation means were significantly different for all characteristics, and were analyzed using an unweighted least squares procedure. An additive-dominance model accounted for most of the variation among generations for fruit weight per plant, lateral number, main stem and mature fruit length, diameter and length/diameter ratio. Additive × additive epistasis was involved in the variation among generations for fruit number per plant. Heterois above the high-parent was observed for fruit weight per plant and the main stem length, dominance was the major contributing factor to variation for these traits. F1 deviation from mid-parent was observed for lateral number.

Free access

Donavon Sonnenberg, Patrick A. Ndakidemi, Ambrose Okem, and Charles Laubscher

compared with the control. Table 1. Effect of drip irrigation on photosynthetic rate (A) between weeks 1 and 8 in Cucumis sativus . Table 2. Effects of drip irrigation on the transpiration rate (E) between weeks 1 and 8 in Cucumis sativus . Table 3

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Yiqun Weng, Shanna Johnson, Jack E. Staub, and Sanwen Huang

Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) is an important and profitable processed vegetable product in many countries and a popular fresh market culinary component of human diets worldwide. In 2008, cucumber ranked fourth in total acres

Free access

Hybrid seed of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is expensive to produce. Production of `artificial seeds' through somatic embryogenesis may be a viable alternative. Somatic embryos were induced, multiplied on a semisolid medium for 8-10 weeks, and germinated on agar-gelled medium before transplanting to soil. It was then important to determine the extent of variation among plants derived from somatic embryos. The criteria for variation among regenerants of cultivar Clinton were; plant height, fruit shape, fruit weight and number (yield/plant), days to first female flower and variation in selected isozymes. All measurements were taken on greenhouse-grown plants. Some regenerants of Clinton were also planted in the field and they flowered and, qualitatively, bore fruit as well as the zygote-derived plants. When quantitative measurements were made, variation was greater than for plants from zygotic embryos, but the visual impact was that there was little variation amongst regenerants. Regenerants grew more slowly and tended to yield higher numbers of slightly smaller fruits than plants from zygotic embryos. Average yield per plant was higher for somatic embryo-derived plants. For cultivar Corona only morphology of plant and fruit was examined. One plant was especially visually mutant and unacceptable as a commercial plant. The defects were readily identifiable in the seedling stage. Preliminary evidence suggests that `artificial seeds' of cucumbers may be a viable proposition.

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N.M.P. Guedes and P.H. Jennings

To improve somatic embryogenesis of Cucumis sativus, two types of explants (cotyledons and stem sections) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 2,4-D (2.0 mg·L–1) + kinetin (0.5 mg·L–1). After 4 weeks, the embryogenic callus was transferred for 2 weeks to MS + NAA (1.0 mg·L–1) for embryo development. Stem sections failed to develop embryos while cotyledons responded with 14% embryo formation. The embryos were transferred to MS without hormones for 4 weeks to allow for plantlet growth. These embryos developed only shoots. To improve on the successful generation of embryos with root and shoot development, the procedures used above were repeated, but the cotyledons were cut into three sections to be used as explants. Each transverse section of the cotyledon was approximately 2–3 mm wide. All sections produced callus but not all of them were embryogenic. From the first section (cotyledon base), the second (between the first and third section) and the third section (furthest from the cotyledon base), respectively, 58%, 31%, and 5% embryo development occurred. Those embryos from the basal cotyledon sections regenerated 10 plantlets, 5 with shoots and roots and 5 with only shoots. Approaches to enhance somatic embryogenesis, and shoot and root development, will be discussed.

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Hybrid seed of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is expensive to produce. Production of `artificial seeds' through somatic embryogenesis may be a viable alternative. Somatic embryos were induced, multiplied on a semisolid medium for 8-10 weeks, and germinated on agar-gelled medium before transplanting to soil. It was then important to determine the extent of variation among plants derived from somatic embryos. The criteria for variation among regenerants of cultivar Clinton were; plant height, fruit shape, fruit weight and number (yield/plant), days to first female flower and variation in selected isozymes. All measurements were taken on greenhouse-grown plants. Some regenerants of Clinton were also planted in the field and they flowered and, qualitatively, bore fruit as well as the zygote-derived plants. When quantitative measurements were made, variation was greater than for plants from zygotic embryos, but the visual impact was that there was little variation amongst regenerants. Regenerants grew more slowly and tended to yield higher numbers of slightly smaller fruits than plants from zygotic embryos. Average yield per plant was higher for somatic embryo-derived plants. For cultivar Corona only morphology of plant and fruit was examined. One plant was especially visually mutant and unacceptable as a commercial plant. The defects were readily identifiable in the seedling stage. Preliminary evidence suggests that `artificial seeds' of cucumbers may be a viable proposition.

Open access

J. E. Staub and R. S. Kupper

Abstract

Hybrid and BC1 progenies from crosses among 3 inbred lines of Cucumis sativus var. sativus and 3 C. sativus var. hardwickii collections were evaluated for days to first flower, sex expression, leaf area of the 4th leaf, fruit length, diameter, length/diameter ratio, and number of fruit per plant. No consistent reciprocal differences were observed, suggesting lack of cytoplasmic and/or maternal control over these traits. F1 data reflected the dominance of var. sativus parental genes for days to first flower, leaf area of the 4th leaf, and the dominance of hardwickii genes for fruit number. Rate of progression towards the sativus recurrent parent for days to first flower, leaf area of the 4th leaf, fruit length, diameter, and number was rapid, approaching sativus characteristics in BC1. Atypical sex expression segregations in the BC1 may be associated with sex modifying genes which may govern daylength response.

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Toshio Shibuya, Akihito Sugimoto, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Makoto Kiyota

material. Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ‘Hokushin’) seedlings grown in a growth chamber for 12 d after seeding were used. The growth conditions were 30/26 °C (light/dark) air temperatures, 50% to 60% relative humidity, and a photosynthetic photon flux

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Toshio Shibuya, Ryosuke Endo, Yuki Kitamura, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Nobuaki Hayashi

light with high R:FR light on the potential photosynthetic advantage of transplants, we investigated the photosynthetic light responses of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings grown under fluorescent lamps with high R:FR light and compared them with