Over the past two decades, selections that produce crisp-textured blueberries have been noted by breeders. Research was conducted to determine how these selections differ from standard cultivars. Four blueberry clones with crisp texture were compared, using firmness, with 94 advanced selections from the University of Florida blueberry breeding program. The clones, tested for berry firmness with an Instron machine, produced a normal distribution. The crisp clones were at the high end of the distribution, but were not qualitatively different from other firm-fruited selections. Firmness was tested during final stages of berry development to determine if crisp clones softened more slowly than standard cultivars. In both 2003 and 2004, firmness decreased greatly from the white to pink stages of development, with slower loss of firmness thereafter. Crisp and commercial clones were similar in the timing of firmness loss. Berries from six crisp clones and four firm commercial cultivars were subjected to shear cell tests to see if the two groups could be distinguished. Shear cell tests from early and late harvests in the same year showed good agreement. Three of the four crisp clones were much higher in shear force than the other clones tested. A consumer sensory panel was conducted to determine if the average person could distinguish between the berries of crisp and standard cultivars. Ninety-five subjects were given two samples each of crisp and non-crisp blueberries, and asked to designate the one sample they thought the most crisp. Seventy-five subjects chose one of the two crisp clones and 20 chose one of the standard clones. This research indicates that crisp texture in blueberry exists and is recognizable and repeatable, but is difficult to objectively define.
Les Padley Jr. and Paul Lyrene
Kendra M. Blaker and James W. Olmstead
Several fresh-market fruit species have textures that range from soft to crisp, including apple ( Malus × domestica ), grape ( Vitis vinifera ), peach ( Prunus persica ), and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium ) ( Batisse et al., 1996 ; Ghiani et al
Albert H. Markhart III and Mark Harper
Roses are grown in Minnesota in the winter in closed greenhouses with the aid of HID lamps, and carbon dioxide enrichment. Although productivity is good, consumers often complain of a rapid dehydration or crisping of the leaves. Through a series of experiments using controlled environment chambers and known vase solutions we have determined that the crisping is due to the deposition of high levels of sucrose in the leaf cell walls due to transpiration from the leaves. The sucrose dehydrates the cell protoplast causing cell collapse and tissue death. Crisping is reduced by lowering the sucrose in the vase solution or reducing transpiration from the leaves. Abscisic acid added to the vase solution effectively reduced transpiration and crisping.
Harpartap Mann, David Bedford, James Luby, Zata Vickers, and Cindy Tong
During storage, many apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) genotypes lose their desirable textural qualities, but some like `Honeycrisp', maintain their sensory Crispness and Firmness. To understand this differential response of genotypes to postharvest changes in texture, reliable and quantifiable methods of texture measurement are needed. This study integrated data from a snapping test, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and sensory panels to study postharvest textural changes and to predict sensory textural attributes of Firmness, Crispness, Mealiness, and Juiciness. Three separate analyses on fresh, stored, and combined fresh and stored fruit data yielded different predictors for the same sensory attributes. Change in Crispness during storage was successfully predicted by change in Work during storage. Cell number and size were related to fresh fruit texture and its maintenance during storage. Unique textural properties of `Honeycrisp' were found to be inherited by its progeny.
Angela R. Davis and Stephen R. King
heirloom varieties combined with the lycopene content and crisp texture of modern cultivars. Most heirloom cultivars of watermelon have a full flavor but typically lower sugar content compared with modern cultivars. Many people report a preference for
David M. Hunter, Frank Kappel, Harvey A. Quamme, and W. Gordon Bonn
Beatriz M. Díaz, Ricardo Biurrún, Aránzazu Moreno, Miguel Nebreda, and Alberto Fereres
Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films are being used as a photoselective barrier to control insect vectors and associated virus diseases in different horticultural crops. A 2-year experiment was carried out in northeastern Spain (Navarra) to evaluate the impact of a UV-blocking film (AD-IR AV) on the population density of insect pests and the spread of insect-transmitted virus diseases associated with head lettuce [Lactuca sativa (L.)]. Results showed that the UV-absorbing plastic film did not loose its ability to filter UV radiation after three lettuce crop cycles (14 months). The UV-absorbing plastic film was effective in reducing the abundance and in delaying the colonization of lettuce by aphids [Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Acyrthosiphum lactucae (Passerini)]. A significant increase in the percentage of marketable plants was achieved under UV-absorbing films due to a reduction in the number of plants infested by aphids and by insect-transmitted virus diseases (mainly potyviruses). Also the UV-absorbing plastic films were effective in reducing the population density of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and the spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as well as the population density of the lepidopteran pest, Autographa gamma (L.), a common pest of lettuce in Spain. However, no effective control of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) was achieved. The results showed that UV-absorbing plastic films are a very promising tool to protect greenhouse lettuce from the main pests and insect-transmitted virus diseases occurring in northeastern Spain.
Kate Evans, Lisa Brutcher, Bonnie Konishi, and Bruce Barritt
Crispness is one of the most important sensory attributes required by consumers in an apple ( Daillant-Spinnler et al., 1996 ). The majority of routine texture measures in apple use either a manual or constant rate Magness–Taylor-type penetrometer
Carlos A. Parera and Daniel J. Cantliffe
Abbreviations: CNS-711, `Crisp N' Sweet 711'; HSII, `How Sweet It Is'; sh2, shrunken-2; SMP, solid matrix priming. Univ. of Florida Agricultural Experimental Station Journal Series no. R-01320. We acknowledge useful discussions with J.D. Eastin
Alicia M. Borowski, Vincent A. Fritz, and Luther Waters Jr.
Abbreviations: CNS, `Crisp N' Sweet 710'; FLASS, `Florida Stayaweet'; SGCX, seedling cold growth test. 1 Graduate Research Assistant. Current address: Asgrow Seed Co., 500 Lucy Brown Lane, Box L, San Juan Bautista, CA 95045. 2 Assistant Professor