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was to determine if increasing the N content of fertilizers applied to transplanted container-grown areca palm and chinese hibiscus plants could accelerate the rate of establishment without exacerbating K and/or Mg deficiencies. Materials and methods

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Chinese hibiscus ( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) or tropical hibiscus is extensively planted as a flowering pot plant worldwide and as a flowering shrub throughout tropical regions. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has not been reported from the wild and is

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Abstract

Mefluidide was applied as a foliar spray to the point of runoff to plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. ‘Pink Versicolor’ at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 mg/liter. Mefluidide treatment increased lateral branching, but inhibited the length of lateral growth and plant height as compared to untreated controls. Tip necrosis of young, expanding leaves was seen at the lowest mefluidide concentration, and increased to the point of severe defoliation of plants at the highest concentration. Mefluidide delayed flowering, but increased the number of flower buds produced. In a 2nd experiment, single and double spray applications of 0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/liter mefluidide were evaluated in comparison to hand-pinching the plants. Both pinching and mefluidide application increased the number of lateral shoots, compared to an untreated control. In contrast to pinched plants, mefluidide treatment inhibited the average length of the lateral shoots. Double applications of mefluidide inhibited plant height, lateral shoot number, and shoot length, as compared to single applications. Treatment with 10 mg/liter gibberellic acid following mefluidide applications was ineffective in reversing the effects of mefluidide on hibiscus growth. Chemical name used: N-[2,4-dimethyl-5-[[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amino]phenyl]acetamide (mefluidide).

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. Also, another dicot species, chinese hibiscus, was included and no pour-through soil extractions were performed at week 26. Natural rainfall during this experiment was about 46 inches. All other procedures were identical to those used in Expt. 1

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Abstract

Succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (SADH) was ineffective but (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat) and α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol) retarded growth of several cultivars of the Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.) inducing shorter internodes and more and earlier flowering during summer months. (2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) also reduced the length of terminal snoots, but reduced flowering and stimulated the growth of lower axillary shoots of unpruned plants.

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In two experiments, chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), bamboo palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), fishtail palm (Caryota mitis), macarthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), plumbago (Plumbago auriculata), alexandra palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae), and foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) were transplanted into 6.2-L (2-gal) containers. They were fertilized with Osmocote Plus 15N-3.9P-10K (12-to14-month formulation) (Expt. 1) or Nutricote Total 18N-2.6P-6.7K (type 360) (Expt. 2) applied by either top dressing, substrate incorporation, or layering the fertilizer just below the transplanted root ball. Shoot dry weight, plant color, root dry weights in the upper and lower halves of the root ball, and weed shoot dry weight were determined when each species reached marketable size. Optimal fertilizer placement method varied among the species tested. With the exception of areca palm, none of the species tested grew best with incorporated fertilizer. Root dry weights in the lower half of the root ball for chinese hibiscus, bamboo palm, and downy jasmine were greatest when the fertilizer was layered and root dry weights in the upper half of the root ball were greatest for top-dressed chinese hibiscus. Weed growth was lower in pots receiving layered fertilizer for four of the six palm species tested.

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Abstract

Dark storage of Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. cv. Brilliant Red) for 5 days to simulate shipping promoted flower bud abscission. Less developed flower buds (<30 mm) were more susceptible than developed buds to dark-storage-induced abscission. Removal of mature buds (>30 mm) before dark storage reduced subsequent abscission of younger, less developed buds. Plants grown under low irradiance conditions (500 µmol·s–1·m–2 PPF) abscised more flower buds in response to dark storage than those grown in high irradiance (980 µmol·s–1·m–2 PPF). These results indicate factors that decrease the availability and partitioning of photosynthates to immature flower buds increase the incidence of abscission.

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Abstract

Boron (B) tolerance of 25 ornamental shrub species was determined in large, outdoor sand cultures. Tolerant species such as Natal plum (Carissa grandiflora (E. H. Mey.) A. D. C.), Indian hawthorn (Raphiolepis indica (L.) Lindl.), Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.), oleander (Nerium oleander L.), Japanese boxwood (Buxus microphylla Siebold and Zucc.), bottlebrush (Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Stapf), ceniza (Leucophyllum frutescens (Berland.) I. M. Johnst.), and blue dracaena (Cordyline indivisa (G. Forst) Steud.) were affected little, if at all, by 7.5 mg B/liter in the irrigation water. Sensitive species like yellow sage (Lantana camara L.), juniper (Juniperus chinensis L.), Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta Lindl. and Paxt.), Wax-leaf privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), laurustinus (Viburnum tinus L.), thorny elaeagnus (Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.), xylosma (Xylosma congestum (Lour.) Merrill), photinia (Photinia ☓ Fraseri Dress.), and Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt.) were severely damaged or killed by 7.5 mg B/liter and moderately damaged by 2.5 mg B/liter in the irrigation water. B tolerance and B accumulation in the leaves were not correlated and no correlation was found between B tolerance and salinity tolerance.

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Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-chinensis), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), and `Jetty' spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum) were grown in containers using Osmocote Plus 15-9-12 (15N-3.9P-10K), which provided phosphorus (two experiments), or resin-coated urea plus sulfur-coated potassium sulfate, which provided no phosphorus (one experiment). Plants were treated with water drenches (controls), drenches with metalaxyl fungicide only, drenches with phosphoric acid (PO4-P), drenches with metalaxyl plus phosphorus from phosphoric acid, drenches with PhytoFos 4-28-10 [4N-12.2P-8.3K, a fertilizer containing phosphorous acid (PO3-P), a known fungicidal compound], or a foliar spray with PhytoFos 4-28-10. Plants receiving soil drenches with equivalent amounts of P from PhytoFos 4-28-10, PO4-P, or PO4-P+metalaxyl generally had the greatest shoot and root dry weights and foliar PO4-P concentrations. There were no differences between the control and metalaxyl-treated plants, indicating that root rot diseases were not a factor. Therefore, responses from PhytoFos 4-28-10 were believed to be due to its nutrient content, rather than its fungicidal properties. Foliar-applied PhytoFos 4-29-10 produced plants that were generally similar in size to control plants or those receiving metalaxyl only drenches. Fertilizers containing PO3-P appear to be about as effective as PO4-P sources when applied to the soil, but are relatively ineffective as a P source when applied as a foliar spray. A distinct positive synergistic response for shoot and root dry weights and foliar PO4-P concentrations was observed for the PO4-P+metalaxyl treatment when no P was applied except as a treatment.

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