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Michele R. Warmund

( Castanea mollissima Bl.), European chestnut ( C. sativa Mill.), and interspecific hybrids of European and Japanese ( C. crenata Sieb. & Zucc.) chestnuts ( Anagnostakis, 2008 ). Additionally, cultivars of interspecific hybrids that include Chinese

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Zhuogong Shi and Li Xia

For over 4000 years, the Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) has been cultivated for its nuts and timber. Chestnuts remain a very important crop in Yunnan Province, Southwest China, but low yields and alternate bearing are problems for

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M. Taylor Perkins, Anna Claire Robinson, Martin L. Cipollini and J. Hill Craddock

seedlings, 71 of 338 (21%) nonscreened BC 3 F 3 seedlings, 10 of 71 (14%) nonscreened BC 1 seedlings, and 36 of 47 (77%) Castanea mollissima seedlings were alive after at least 1 year of growth in the P. cinnamomi -positive orchard. Because hybrid

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Michael A. Schnelle

Hemisphere. American producers are currently growing seedlings and cultivars of chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Bl.), european chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill . ), and interspecific hybrids of European and Japanese ( Castanea crenata Mill

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P. Chowdary Talasila, Arthur C. Cameron and Lee J. Taylor

The shelf life of chestnuts is limited by water loss. Polymeric packages have been used to prevent dehydration, although little specific information is available on the use and design of MA packaging for extending shelf life. To investigate the product response to MA conditions, a range of O2 levels were generated inside low-density polyethylene (LDPE) packages containing chestnuts. The respiration rate decreased with decreasing O2 levels below 16 kPa at 0C. A rapid increase in RQ and ethanol were noticed when the chestnuts were exposed to O2 levels below 1 kPa at 0C, indicating a shift to fermentative metabolism. In a flow-through system, the respiration rate at 0C and the Q10 were measured as 108 nmol·kg–1·s–1 and 2.5, respectively. Chestnuts were stored at –2, 0, 5, and 20C in LDPE packages for 6 months and quality was periodically evaluated. Off-flavors were noticed from chestnuts stored in O2 levels below 1 kPa at 0C on day 38. Chestnuts stored at 0C but at higher O2 levels were acceptable for 5 months. Chestnuts stored at –2C were still acceptable after 6 months of storage.

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Michele R. Warmund, Andrew K. Biggs and Larry D. Godsey

. 25 Jan. 2012. < http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/i4562.pdf > Warmund, M.R. 2011 Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) as a niche crop in the central region of the United States HortScience 46 345 347

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Michele R. Warmund, Billy G. Cumbie and Mark V. Coggeshall

-Lopez, 1997 ; Serdar and Soylu, 2005 ). In the United States, commercial nurseries generally use chip-budding or whip and tongue grafting to propagate Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima ) trees (W. Lovelace, personal communication), whereas small chestnut

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Michele R. Warmund

Studies were conducted to characterize altered tissues of larvae-infested buds and stem and leaf galls induced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Chinese chestnut trees (Castanea mollissima Blume) and to describe gall inhabitants. Bud and gall samples were collected from chestnut trees growing in Mantua, OH, on 2 Mar. and 3 May 2012, respectively, and prepared for microscopy. Uni- and multilocular larval chambers containing one D. kuriphilus larva per chamber were observed in buds and stem galls. Evidence of insect-modified Castanea cells was present as a two-layer zone of hypertrophied plant cells adjacent to the larval chambers before budbreak on 2 Mar. By 3 May, stem and leaf galls were in the growth and differentiation stage of development. Within galls, torn cell walls and disorganized organelles were visible in the protoplasm of cells surrounding ovoid-shaped larval chambers. A continuous layer of nutritive cells with large nuclei and nucleoli, abundant lipid bodies and mitochondria, and fragmented vacuoles was contiguous to larval chambers. At the outermost region of the nutritive tissue, cells had recently divided. Larger vacuolated cells, with slightly thickened walls, were observed surrounding recently divided cells. Thin-walled parenchyma cells in the chestnut gall cortex had large vacuoles with fewer organelles than those of the nutritive layer. Vascular tissue within the gall was connected with that of the plant host tissue outside the gall. In some chestnut galls, a single parasitoid larva was found attached to a D. kuriphilus larva. Each parasitoid larva had six pairs of setae on its head capsule, a pair of clypeal setae, a notched labrum, a semicircular lobed labium, 13 post-cephalic body segments, and rows of long, erect setae on all body segments.

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Huan Xiong, Feng Zou, Sujuan Guo, Deyi Yuan and Genhua Niu

( Castanea henryi (Skam) Rehder & Wilson) and their systematic implications Trees 29 1713 1723 Feng, Y.Q. Shen, Y.Y. Qin, L. Cao, Q.Q. Han, Z.H. 2011 Short cakin 1, a novel mutant of Castanea mollissima , is associated with programmed cell death during

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Eiichi Inoue, Lin Ning, Hiromichi Hara, Shuan Ruan and Hiroyuki Anzai

the dendrogram, except for three pairs of cultivars of japanese chestnut. A total of 66 genotypes without five interspecific hybrids were clearly separated into three large groups that reflected the three distinct species: Castanea mollissima , C