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S. Brooks Parrish and Zhanao Deng

axonopodis and Colletotrichum caladii, which affect Caladium × hortulanum . Further studies will be needed to determine if there is any resistance conferred to these triploids to either pathogen. Our findings are highly valuable to the future of

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Brent Harbaugh

Abstract

Visual symptoms of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and B deficiencies were induced in Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey ‘Candidum’. Characteristic symptoms were photographed and described and a key summarizing these symptoms follows:

a. Chlorosis or necrosis not expressed;

b. Petioles brittle and/or leaves orbicular.........................................................................................................................B

bb. Plants grow slowly, but have no other symptoms......................................................................................................P

bbb. Rust colored spots on underside of leaf near petiole, spots may become “windows” (only the cuticle and epidermal layer remain)................................................................................................................................................. Ca

aa. Chlorosis and/or necrosis expressed;

b. Chlorosis primary symptom.

c. Interveinal and veinal chlorosis

d. Chlorosis evident as leaves unfurl............................................................................................................... Mn

dd. Chlorosis not evident as leaves unfurl, older leaf blades and veins may turn bright yellow as they abscise................................................................................................................................................................... N

cc. Interveinal chlorosis...................................................................................................................................................Fe

bb. Both chlorosis and necrosis expressed.

c. Interveinal chlorosis developing into necrotic spots, leaves turn bright yellow (except basal veins remain green) as they abscise............................................................................................................................................. Mg

cc. Necrotic specks (@ 1 mm) near veins, general chlorosis............................................................................... Mn

bbb. Necrosis primary symptom.

c. Necrotic lesions (2–5 cm) on leaf apex and distal m argin.................................................................................K

cc. Marginal necrosis.

d. Necrosis spreads toward the center of the leaf, margins dry but the leaf blade around petiole remains intact.......................................................................................................................................................................K

dd. Interveinal rust colored, blotchy areas.........................................................................................................Ca

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

Cultivated caladiums ( Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey) are members of the aroid family and have been important pot and landscape plants ( Evans et al., 1992 ). They are known for their bright and colorful leaves, adaptation to tropical and

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Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick

caladium cultivars in controlled environments, suggesting that there may be varying levels of resistance to S. sclerotiorum within cultivars of caladium. The pedigrees of many cultivars of Caladium ×hortulanum are unknown, but most are believed to

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Zhe Cao, Shunzhao Sui, Qian Yang, and Zhanao Deng

Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) stimulates flowering in Caladium hortulanum Birdsey HortScience 14 72 73 Henny, R.J. 1982 Inheritance of foliar variegation in two Dieffenbachia cultivars J. Hered. 73 384 Henny, R.J. 1992 Inheritance of the foliar variegation

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James E. Barrett, Carolyn A. Bartuska, and Terril A. Nell

Paclobutrazol drench treatments were evaluated for efficacy on Caladium ×hortulanum (Birdsey) cultivars Aaron, White Christmas, and Carolyn Wharton. Drenches at 2.0 mg/pot did not reduce height of `Aaron' and `White Christmas' plants when applied 1 week after planting, but 2.0 mg applied at 3 weeks after planting did result in shorter plants. The difference for time of application may be due to the amount of roots present to take up paclobutrazol when applied. In two factorial experiments, there were no interactions between cultivar and time of application or amount of chemical. Paclobutrazol at 0.5 mg/pot resulted in plants that were shorter than the controls. Higher amounts of paclobutrazol provided additional reductions in height, but there was variation between the experiments for degree of effect with amounts >1 mg. Generally, commercially acceptable height control was provided by paclobutrazol drench treatments at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/pot applied 3 weeks after planting. Chemical names used: (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, Rick O. Kelly, Teresa Seijo, and Robert J. McGovern

Caladiums (Caladium ×hortulanum) are widely grown as pot or landscape plants for their attractive leaves. Pythium root rot (Pythium myriotylum) is one of the most damaging diseases in caladium, severely reducing plant growth, aesthetic value, and tuber yield. Twenty-three commercial cultivars were inoculated with three aggressive isolates of P. myriotylum and evaluated for their resistance to root rot. Three cultivars, `Apple Blossom', `Blizzard', and `Etta Moore', were found to have a moderate level of resistance (partial resistance) to pythium root rot. The rest of these cultivars were susceptible or highly susceptible to Pythium infection, losing up to 94% of their root tissue to rotting within 10 days after inoculation. Data indicated a linear relationship between root rot severity and leaf loss severity on Pythium-inoculated plants and highlight the importance of controlling pythium root rot in caladium pot plant and tuber production. Comparison of some recent releases with their parents for pythium root rot resistance suggests the potential of developing new resistant caladium cultivars using the identified sources of resistance.

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

The sporadic nature of inflorescence production and flower protogyny in caladium (Caladium ×hortulanum Birdsey) makes it desirable to store pollen and to rapidly assess its viability for cross-pollinations in breeding programs. This study was conducted to develop a procedure to determine caladium pollen viability and to use that procedure to evaluate the effect of short-term storage conditions on pollen viability. The sucrose level in the culture medium was found to have a significant impact on the in vitro germination of caladium pollen; a concentration of 6.8% was determined to be optimal for pollen germination. Caladium pollen lost viability within 1 day under room (24 °C) or freezing (-20 °C) temperatures, but could be stored at 4 °C for 2 to 4 days. Pollen stored at 4 °C produced successful pollinations. Data obtained from large-scale greenhouse pollinations supported use of this in vitro germination assay as a convenient way to evaluate caladium pollen viability (and fertility).

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

The ornamental value of caladium (Caladium ×hortulanum Birdsey) depends primarily on leaf characteristics, including leaf shape and main vein color. Caladium leaf shapes are closely associated with plant growth habit, stress tolerance, and tuber yield; leaf main vein colors are often used for cultivar identification. Thirty-eight crosses were made among 10 cultivars and two breeding lines; their progeny were analyzed to understand the inheritance of leaf shape and main vein color and to determine if there is a genetic linkage between these two traits. Results showed that a single locus with three alleles determined the main vein color in caladium. The locus was designated as V, with alleles V r, V w, and V g for red, white, and green main veins, respectively. The white vein allele was dominant over the green vein allele, but it was recessive to the red vein allele, which was dominant over both white and green vein alleles; thus the dominance order of the alleles is V r > V w > V g. Segregation data indicated that four major red-veined cultivars were heterozygous with the genotype Vr V g, and that one white-veined cultivar was homozygous and one other white-veined cultivar and one breeding line were heterozygous. The observed segregation data confirmed that the three leaf shapes in caladium were controlled by two co-dominant alleles at one locus, designated as F and f, for fancy and strap leaves, respectively. The skewedness of leaf shape segregation in some of the crosses implied the existence of other factors that might contribute to the formation of leaf shape. Contingency chi-square tests for independence revealed that caladium leaf shape and main vein color were inherited independently. The chi-square tests for goodness-of-fit indicated that the five observed segregation patterns for leaf shape and main vein color fit well to the expected ratio assuming that two co-dominant and three dominant/recessive alleles control leaf shape and main vein color and they are inherited independently.

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Teresa E. Seijo, Natalia A. Peres, and Zhanao Deng

Caladium ( Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey) is an ornamental aroid grown as landscape and potted plants. They are valued for their colorful foliage that comes in various leaf shapes and coloration patterns containing shades of red, pink, white