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Tonghua Pan, Juanjuan Ding, Gege Qin, Yunlong Wang, Linjie Xi, Junwei Yang, Jianming Li, Jing Zhang, and Zhirong Zou

et al., 2007 ). Numerous studies have shown that CO 2 enrichment can increase growth, affect physiology, and increase both yield and quality in tomatoes ( Mamatha et al., 2014 ; Nilsen et al., 1983 ; Yelle et al., 1990 ). Atmospheric CO 2

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David S. de Villiers, Robert W. Langhans, A.J. Both, Louis D. Albright, and Sue Sue Scholl

CO2 enrichment increases efficiency of light utilization and rate of growth, thereby reducing the need for supplemental lighting and potentially lowering cost of production. However, during warmer periods of the year, CO2 enrichment is only possible intermittently due to the need to vent for temperature control. Previous research investigated the separate and combined effects of daily light integral and continuous CO2 enrichment on biomass accumulation in lettuce. The current research was designed to look at the efficiency with which lettuce is able to utilize intermittent CO2 enrichment, test the accuracy with which growth can be predicted and controlled, and examine effects of varying CO2 enrichment and supplemental lighting on carbon assimilation and plant transpiration on a minute by minute basis. Experiments included application of various schedules of intermittent CO2 enrichment and gas exchange analysis to elucidate underlying physiological processes. Same-day and day-to-day adjustments in daily light integrals were made in response to occasional CO2 venting episodes, using an up-to-the-minute estimate of growth progress based on an integration of growth increments that were calculated from actual light levels and CO2 concentrations experienced by the plants. Results indicated lettuce integrates periods of intermittent CO2 enrichment well, achieving expected growth targets as measured by destructive sampling. The gas-exchange work quantified a pervasive impact of instantaneous light level and CO2 concentration on conductance and CO2 assimilation. Implications for when to apply supplemental lighting and CO2 enrichment to best advantage and methods for predicting and controlling growth under intermittent CO2 enrichment are discussed.

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Xun Li, Wenying Chu, Jinlong Dong, and Zengqiang Duan

, which may result in inhibition of plants photosynthesis ( Kläring et al., 2007 ). For this reason, CO 2 concentration inside the greenhouse usually is increased by adding CO 2 gas ( Mortensen, 1987 ). CO 2 enrichment not only has a dramatic effect on

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Ribo Deng and Danielle J. Donnelly

Micropropagated `Festival' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) shoots were rooted in specially constructed plexiglass chambers in ambient (340 ± 20 ppm) or enriched (1500 ±50 ppm) CO2 conditions on a medium containing 0, 10, 20, or 30 g sucrose/liter. Plantlet growth and leaf 14CO2 fixation rates were evaluated before and 4 weeks after ex vitro transplantation. In vitro CO2 enrichment promoted in vitro hardening; it increased root count and length, plantlet fresh weight, and photosynthetic capacity but did not affect other variables such as plantlet height, dry weight, or leaf count and area. No residual effects of in vitro CO2 enrichment were observed on 4-week-old transplants. Sucrose in the medium promoted plantlet growth but depressed photosynthesis and reduced in vitro hardening. Photoautotrophic plantlets were obtained on sucrose-free rooting medium under ambient and enriched CO2 conditions and they performed better ex vitro than mixotrophi plantlets grown with sucrose. Root hairs were more abundant and longer on root tips of photoautotrophic plantlets than on mixotrophic plantlets. The maximum CO2 uptake rate of plantlet leaves was 52% that of greenhouse control plant leaves. This did not change in the persistent leaves up to 4 weeks after ex vitro transplantation. The photosynthetic ability of persistent and new leaves of 4-week-old ex vitro transplants related neither to in vitro CO2 nor medium sucrose concentration. Consecutive new leaves of transplants took up more CO2 than persistent leaves. The third new leaf of transplants had photosynthetic rates up to 90% that of greenhouse control plant leaves. These results indicate that in vitro CO2 enrichment was beneficial to in vitro hardening and that sucrose may be reduced substantially or eliminated from red raspberry rooting medium when CO2 enrichment is used.

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Kenneth W. Mudge, Joseph P. Lardner, and Katherine L. Eckenrode

The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of CO2 enrichment and optimal radiation level for accelerating the rooting and growth of micropropagated Kalmia latifolia cuttings during the Stage IV acclimation period. Inch long microcuttings of the Kalmia cultivars `Elf' and `Carousel' shipped from a commercial micropropagation laboratory, were stuck in flats of peat, and place in a fogging chamber constructed to allow for the simultaneous experimental variation of CO2 level and either radiation level or photoperiod. Treatments consisted of a complete factorial arrangement of 2 levels of CO2 (ambient and 1200 ppm) and 3 levels of radiation (30, 98, and 158 μmoles/m2/sec). The experiment was repeated 6 times. For `Carousel' CO2 enrichment stimulated both shoot and root growth and either the high or medium light level was optimal depending on the experiment. CO2 enrichment also stimulated growth of `Elf' but results were less consistent from experiment to experiment. Similar experiments are in progress with Amelanchier and Lilac microcuttings.

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B. Acock, M.C. Acock, and D. Pasternak

We examined how temperature and stage of vegetative growth affect carbohydrate production and accumulation in Cucumis melo L. `Haogen' grown at various CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). Carbohydrate production was measured by net assimilation rate either on a leaf-area basis (NARa) or a leaf dry-weight basis (NARw); carbohydrate accumulation was measured by leaf starch plus sugar content. Twenty-four- and 35-day-old muskmelon plants were grown for 11 days in artificially lighted cabinets at day/night temperatures of 20/20 or 40/20C and at [CO2] of 300 or 1500 μl·liter-1. NARa and NARw both increased with increasing [CO2], but the CO2 effect was smaller at low temperature, especially for plants at the later stage of vegetative growth. NARw was a better indicator of total dry-weight gain than was NARa. Both suboptimal temperatures and CO2 enrichment caused carbohydrates to accumulate in the leaves at both stages of vegetative growth. NARw was correlated negatively with leaf starch plus sugar content. The rate of decrease in NARw with increasing leaf starch plus sugar content was significantly greater for CO2-enriched plants. Leaf starch plus sugar content >0.03 to 0.04 kg·kg-1 of leaf residual dry weight at the end of a dark period may indicate that temperature is suboptimal for growth. Plants grown at the same temperature had higher leaf starch plus sugar content if they were CO2-enriched than if grown in ambient [CO2], suggesting that an optimal temperature for growth in ambient [CO2] may be suboptimal in elevated [CO2].

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R.C. Beeson Jr and M.E.D. Graham

The effect of prolonged CO2 enrichment on the activities of ribulose l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) of greenhouse roses were studied. Plants of Rosa × hybrids `Red Success' were grown for 2 years at ambient and 900 μl CO2/liter during winter and spring with 75 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation supplemental lighting for 2 years. Measurements of initial and Mg+2-CO2-activated activities of Rubisco and CA were made during shoot development and at different positions within the plant canopy. Generally, there were no significant differences measured in the enzyme activities between the two CO2 concentrations. The results suggest that the photosynthetic capacity did not change and that there were no characteristic adaptations to long-term growth (up to 20 weeks) at elevated CO2 concentrations. The maintenance of Rubisco and CA activities with prolonged exposure to CO2-enriched atmospheres is proposed as the reason for long-term yield increases in roses when grown in enriched environments.

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Robert L. Houtz, Douglas D. Archbold, and Malcolm Royer

A technique was developed for controlled micro-release of CO2 into the leaf canopy of strawberry and tomato plants under field production conditions; The leaf canopy atmosphere of tomato plants was enriched to 500 and 1200 ppm CO2 with release rates of 60 and 300 l/h·30 m of row respectively. After 60 days of enrichment for 6 h each day beginning at fruit set, the total shoot biomass and yield was increased 41% and 25 % respectively for the high CO2 release rate. Strawberry leaf canopies did not show increased CO levels with CO2 enrichment except under ventilated2 row-covers where the atmospheric CO2 level was increased to 1500 ppm CO2. Although the total biomass was increased 39% this did not translate into increased yields perhaps due to excessive temperatures under the row covers.

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Serge Yelle, Richard C. Beeson Jr., Marc J. Trudel, and André Gosselin

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Vedettos and Lycopersicon chmielewskii Rick, LA 1028, were exposed to two CO2 concentrations (330 or 900 μmol·m-3) for 10 weeks. The elevated CO2 concentration increased the relative growth rate (RGR) of L. esculentum and L. chmielewskii by 18% and 30%, respectively, after 2 weeks of treatment. This increase was not maintained as the plant matured. Net assimilation rate (NAR) and specific leaf weight (SLW) were always higher in C02-enriched plants, suggesting that assimilates were preferentially accumulated in the leaves as reserves rather than contributing to leaf expansion. Carbon dioxide enrichment increased early and total yields of L. esculentum by 80% and 22%, respectively. Carbon exchange rates (CER) increased during the first few weeks, but thereafter decreased as tomato plants acclimated to high atmospheric CO2. The relatively constant concentration of internal C0 with time suggests that reduced stomatal conductance under high CO2 does not explain lower photosynthetic rates of tomato plants grown under high atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Leaves 5 and 9 responded equally to high CO2 enrichment throughout plant growth. Consequently, acclimation of CO2-enriched plants was not entirely due to the age of the tissue. After 10 weeks of treatment, leaf 5, which had been exposed to high CO2 for only 10 days, showed the greatest acclimation of the experiment. We conclude that the duration of exposure of the whole plant to elevated CO2 concentration, rather than the age of the tissue, governs the acclimation to high CO2 concentrations.

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Clara Pelayo, Betty Hess-Pierce, Susan E. Ebeler, and Adel A. Kader

Elevated CO2 atmospheres reduce decay and extend postharvest life based on appearance of strawberries but flavor quality may be lost faster than appearance quality. California-grown `Aromas', `Diamante,' and `Selva' strawberries were stored at 5 °C in air or 20 kPa CO2 + air for 15 days and evaluated for quality attributes, chemical changes, and flavor. In a “Preference Test”, `Selva” and `Diamante' were more preferred than `Aromas'. This may be related to their higher titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), the concentration of total aroma compounds, a different methyl/ethyl esters ratio, and the presence of C6 aldehydes. The postharvest life in air was 7, 9, and 9 days for `Aromas', `Diamante' and `Selva', respectively and these periods were extended by 30%, 20%, and 45% in the CO2-enriched atmosphere. There were no significant differences in TA or TSS between fruits kept in air or in air + CO2 and panelists could not detect differences in sourness and sweetness after 9 days of storage. In contrast, there was a trend for CO2-stored fruits of the three cultivars to be categorized as more aromatic, and for `Aromas' and `Selva' fruits to be described as more “strawberry like” in flavor compared to the corresponding air-stored fruits. The total aroma concentration decreased to a lesser extent in `Aromas' and `Selva' strawberries kept in air + CO2 than in those stored in air. The CO2-enriched atmosphere stimulated fermentative metabolism only in `Aromas' and `Selva'; the higher concentration of ethanol in these two cultivars favored the synthesis of ethyl esters. The total content of aroma compounds and the methyl/ethyl esters ratio may be two of the multiple factors determining the overall fruit flavor.