), CO 2 compensation point (CCP) and J max at a standard temperature of 25 °C were calculated with a model of the temperature dependence of the photosynthetic parameters. Leaf anatomic structure. Using optical microscopy and paraffin section technology
Ze Li, Kai Shi, Fanhang Zhang, Lin Zhang, Hongxu Long, Yanling Zeng, Zhiming Liu, Genhua Niu and Xiaofeng Tan
William R. Nail and G. Stanley Howell
Potted grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. `Chardonnay') were inoculated with conidial suspensions of the grapevine pathogen causing powdery mildew of grape (GPM) (Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr.). Leaves of inoculated and noninoculated vines were studied for the effects of varying light (PAR) and CO2 concentrations on factors affecting carbon assimilation. GPM reduced carboxylation efficiency (k), net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (g s), and internal CO2 concentration (Ci) under ambient CO2, A max at >900 ppm CO2, stomatal limitations to A (lg), and photochemical efficiency (Φ) on diseased leaves, while having no effect on the CO2 compensation point (Γ) or the light compensation point (cp). GPM had no significant effect on chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm).
Riccardo Gucci, John Everard, James Flore and Wayne Loescher
Photosynthetic rates (A) in celery-(Apium graveolens L.) and other polyol-synthesizers are sometimes high for C, species. In celery such rates have been related to a low CO2 compensation point typical of C4 and C3-C4 intermediate spp, although other data show celery photosynthesis as typically C3 Therefore, celery gas exchange was here reanalyzed, and while A was high (CO2 assimilation rates were 21.2 and 27.6 μ mol m-2s-1, average and maximum, photosynthesis was otherwise C,: CO, comp pt of 3.5-5.0 Pa, carboxylation efficiency of 0.99 μmol CO2m-2s-1Pa-1, light comp pt of 8-36 μ mol photon m-1s-1, optimum temp of 22-27°C for Amax. High A may relate to a capacity to synthesize both mannitol and sucrose. 14C pulse-chase studies, with different A obtained by imposing light gradients across opposite leaflets, showed 1-10% increases in mannitoll sucrose labelling. Higher A may reflect carbon partitioning into mannitol, agreeing with a hypothesis that polyol synthesis effectively recycles reductant in the cytosol.
Jan M. Kossowski and David W. Wolfe
Long- and short-term physiological responses of pak choi (Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris cv. `Hypro') to elevated CO2 and light environments were evaluated in the series of growth chamber experiments. Plants were grown hydroponically (Nutrient Film Technique) at 25/18°C (day/night) temperature, a 16-h photoperiod, and at three CO2 levels (350, 700, 1400 ppm) and two light levels (200 and 400 μmol·m–2·s–1 PPFD). Relative to 350-ppm CO2 treatment, the final total plant dry mass in low light increased by 37% and 38% at 700 and 1400 ppm CO2, respectively. In high light the increase was 7% and 13% at 700 and 1400 ppm CO2, respectively. Light response curves showed a positive CO2 effect on light compensation point, a slight increase in quantum yield and increase in maximum Pn rates at elevated CO2. Carbon dioxide response curves (measured at saturating PPFD of 1600 μmol·m–2·s–1) showed no effect of growth light treatment on the CO2 compensation point, but a 20% to 30% higher maximum Pn rate at saturating CO2 in plants grown at the higher light level. Overall, the highest Pn rates and the highest plant dry mass at final harvest were found in plants grown at the 400 μmol·m–2·s–1 PPFD and 1400 ppm CO2. Relative beneficial CO2 effects, however, were the most pronounced in low light conditions.
K.A. Corey, R.M. Wheeler, J.C. Sager and R.P. Prince
A wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) stand was grown using nutrient film culture in the closed conditions of NASA's Biomass Production Chamber. Rates of photosynthesis and respiration of the entire stand (about 20 m2) were determined daily using a regime of 20 hr light/4 hr dark, 20 C light/16 C dark an average PPF of 600 μmol/m2/s from HPS lamps, and a CO2 cone of 1000 ppm. Fractional interception of PPF by the stand reached a maximum of 0.96 at 24 days from planting. Rates of photosynthesis were constant throughout the photoperiod as determined by short term drawdowns of CO2 throughout the photoperiod. Drawdown rates of CO2 were correlated with rates determined by logging of mass flow of CO2 injected during chamber closure. Photosynthetic drawdowns of CO2 indicated that photosynthesis was not saturated at 1000 ppm CO2 and that the CO2 compensation point was about 50 ppm. Whole stand light compensation points were 200 to 250 μmol/m2/s between days 13 and 70 and then increased rapidly during senescence.
Gary W. Stutte, Neil C. Yorio and Raymond M. Wheeler
The effect of photoperiod (PP) on net carbon assimilation rate (Anet) and starch accumulation in newly mature canopy leaves of `Norland' potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was determined under high (412 ∝mol·m-2·s-1) and low (263 ∝mol·m-2·s-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) conditions. The Anet decreased from 13.9 to 11.6 and 9.3 μmol·m-2·s-1, and leaf starch increased from 70 to 129 and 118 mg·g-1 drymass (DM) as photoperiod (PP) was increased from 12/12 to 18/6, and 24/0, respectively. Longer PP had a greater effect with high PPF conditions than with low PPF treatments, with high PPF showing greater decline in Anet. Photoperiod did not affect either the CO2 compensation point (50 μmol·mol-1) or CO2 saturation point (1100-1200 μmol·mol-1) for Anet. These results show an apparent limit to the amount of starch that can be stored (≈15% DM) in potato leaves. An apparent feedback mechanism exists for regulating Anet under high PPF, high CO2, and long PP, but there was no correlation between Anet and starch concentration in individual leaves. This suggests that maximum Anet cannot be sustained with elevated CO2 conditions under long PP (≥12 hours) and high PPF conditions. If a physiological limit exists for the fixation and transport of carbon, then increasing photoperiod and light intensity under high CO2 conditions is not the most appropriate means to maximize the yield of potatoes.
G.W. Stutte, N.C. Yorio and R.M. Wheeler
Photoperiod treatments were imposed on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) grown in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center under HPS lamps (670 μmol m-2s-1 PPF) at 1200 μmol mol-1 CO2. Stand A decreased with dark cycle length, which correlated with the change in leaf starch concentration during the dark cycle, but not absolute starch concentration. A series of growth chamber experiments were performed to characterize the effect of photoperiod and PPF on CO2 assimilation and starch mobilization in single leaves. Plants grown on a 12/12 photoperiod at either low (300 μmol m-2s-1) or high (600 μmol m-2s-1) PPF were subjected to short-term photoperiod treatments of 8/16, 16/8, and 24/0 and diurnal CO2 assimilation rates, CO2 response curves, and leaf starch content were determined. CO2 compensation point was not affected by either photoperiod or PPF. However, Amax (when normalized for PPF) decreased with increasing photoperiod. Anet correlated with the changes in specific leaf weight and starch content during the dark cycle.
John Erwin and Esther Gesick
The impact of irradiance (0–1200 μmol·m−2·s−1) and carbon dioxide concentration (CO2; 50–1200 ppm) on kale (Brassica oleracea and B. napus pabularia; three cultivars), Swiss chard (chard, Beta vulgaris; four cultivars), and spinach (Spinacea oleracea; three cultivars) photosynthetic rate (P n; per area basis) was determined to facilitate maximizing yield in controlled environment production. Spinach, chard, and kale maximum P n were 23.8, 20.3, and 18.2 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1 fixed, respectively, across varieties (400 ppm CO2). Spinach and kale had the highest and lowest light compensation points [LCPs (73 and 13 μmol·m−2·s−1, respectively)] across varieties. The light saturation points (LSPs) for chard and kale were similar at 884–978 μmol·m−2·s−1, but for spinach, the LSP was higher at 1238 μmol·m−2·s−1. Dark respiration was lowest on kale and highest on spinach (−0.83 and −5.00 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1, respectively). The spinach CO2 compensation point (CCP) was lower (56 ppm) than the chard or kale CCP (64–65 ppm). Among varieties, ‘Red Russian’ kale P n saturated at the lowest CO2 concentration (858 ppm), and ‘Bright Lights’ chard saturated at the highest (1266 ppm; 300 μmol·m−2·s−1). Spinach P n was more responsive to increasing irradiance than to CO2. Kale P n was more responsive to increasing CO2 than to irradiance, and chard P n was equally responsive to increasing CO2 or irradiance. Implications and limitations of this work when “upscaling” to whole-plant responses are discussed.
Desmond R. Layne and J.A. Flore
The leaf surface area of l-year-old, potted `Montmorency' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) trees was reduced by punching disks from some or all leaves to determine the threshold level of leaf area removal (LAR) necessary to reduce net CO2 assimilation (A) and whole-plant growth. Removal of 30% of the leaf area of individual leaves reduced A on a whole-leaf basis between 1 and 3 weeks following LAR. Less than 30% LAR was compensated for by higher estimated carboxylation efficiency and ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration capacity. The threshold level of LAR based on gas exchange of individual leaves was 20%. Although whole-plant dry weight accumulation was reduced at all levels of LAR, a disproportionately large decrease in dry weight occurred as LAR increased from 20% to 30%. This result indicates that 30% LAR exceeded the threshold LAR level that was noted for A (20% LAR). Wound ethylene production induced by leaf-punching ceased after 24 hours, which indicated that wounds had healed and that ethylene, therefore, did not influence A significantly. The observed threshoId of 20% LAR represents a significant compensation ability for sour cherry, but this threshold may change with crop load, environment, or both.
Desmond R. Layne and J.A. Flore
The source-sink ratio of l-year-old, potted `Montmorency' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees was manipulated by partial defoliation (D) or continuous lighting (CL) to investigate the phenomenon of end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. Within 24 hours of D, net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of the most recently expanded source leaves of D plants was significantly higher than nondefoliated (control) plants throughout the diurnal photoperiod. Between 2 and 7 days after D, A was 30% to 50% higher and stomatal conductance rate (g,) was 50% to 100% higher than in controls. Estimated carboxylation efficiency(k) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration rate increased significantly within 2 days and remained consistently higher for up to 9 days after D. Leaf starch concentration and dark respiration rate decreased but sorbitol and sucrose concentration increased after D. The diurnal decline in A in the afternoon after D may have been due to feedback inhibition from accumulation of soluble carbohydrates (sucrose and sorbitol) in the cytosol. This diurnal decline indicated that trees were sink limited. By 9 days after D, photochemical efficiency was significantly higher than in control plants. In the long term, leaf senescence was delayed as indicated by higher A and gs in combination with higher chlorophyll content up to 32 days after D. CL resulted in a significant reduction of A, gs, k, variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv), photochemical efficiency, and estimated RuBP regeneration rate of the most recently expanded source leaves within 1 day. During the exposure to CL, A was reduced 2- to 3-fold and k was reduced up to 4-fold. The normal linear relationship between A and gs was uncoupled under CL indicating that A was not primarily limited by gs and since internal CO2 concentration was not significantly affected, the physical limitation to A imposed by the stomata was negligible. The decrease in Fv and photochemical efficiency indicated that leaves were photoinhibited within 1 day. The decrease in instantaneous chlorophyll fluorescence after at least 1 day of CL indicated that there was a reversible regulatory mechanism whereby the damage to photosystem II reaction centers was repaired. Leaf chlorophyll content was not altered by 1,2, or 3 days of exposure to CL, indicating that photooxidation of chlorophytl did not occur. The time to full photosynthetic recovery from CL increased as the duration of exposure increased. CL plants that were photoinhibited accumulated significant starch in the chloroplast in a companion study (Layne and Flore, 1993) and it is possible that an orthophosphate limitation in the chloroplast stroma was occurring. D plants that were continuously illuminated were not photosynthetically inhibited. After 7 days of CL, plants that were then partially defoliated yet remained in CL photosynthetically recovered within 5 days to pre-CL values. Under the conditions of this investigation, end-product inhibition of A occurred in young, potted sour cherry trees but the mechanism of action in D plants was different than in CL plants.