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César Mota-Cadenas, Carlos Alcaraz-López, M. Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, and Micaela Carvajal

agricultural practices that result in lower emissions. Currently, crop lands represent approximately one-third of Europe's land area ( Smith et al., 2005 ). In this direction, Hutchinson et al. (2007) concluded that the CO 2 fixation potential of crop lands

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Israel Weiss, Yosef Mizrahi, and Eran Raveh

Most studies on the physiological responses of plants to increasing CO 2 concentrations have focused on C 3 and C 4 photosynthetic pathway plants. It has been found that CO 2 enrichment enhances net CO 2 uptake and growth of C 3 plants by 30

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Ming Li, Toyoki Kozai, Katsumi Ohyama, Shigeharu Shimamura, Kaori Gonda, and Tetsuo Sekiyama

potato plants ( Corey and Wheeler, 1992 ; Wheeler et al., 1994b ), and wheat plants ( Corey and Wheeler, 1992 ) and for producing transplants ( Kozai et al., 2006 ). The CO 2 balance of experimental CSALs has been investigated by several researchers

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Mengmeng Gu, James A. Robbins, Curt R. Rom, and Hyun-Sug Choi

). Excess excitation energy may cause damage to the photosynthetic apparatus when it exceeds the capacity of other dissipation mechanism. Ambient CO 2 concentration (CO 2 ) is a limiting factor to net CO 2 assimilation (A) in C 3 plants ( Lambers et al

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Kaori Itagaki, Toshio Shibuya, Motoaki Tojo, Ryosuke Endo, and Yoshiaki Kitaya

The [CO 2 ] in greenhouse cultivation during daylight hours is often lower than the atmospheric level, possibly as low as 200 µmol·mol −1 when ventilation is limited ( Kläring et al., 2007 ; Sánchez-Guerrero et al., 2005 ). In such cases, CO 2

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B. Acock, M.C. Acock, and D. Pasternak

Abbreviations: CLW, weight of starch plus sugar; [CO 2 ], CO 2 concentration; LER, leaf area expansion rate; NAR a , net assimilation rate, leaf-area basis; NAR w , net assimilation rate, dry-weight basis; PAR, photosynthetically active radiation

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Craig S. Charron, Steven J. Britz, Roman M. Mirecki, Dawn J. Harrison, Beverly A. Clevidence, and Janet A. Novotny

photosynthetic fixation of labeled CO 2 . Using a pulse-chase technique in which Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh was exposed to 14 CO 2 for 10 min, followed by exposure to natural CO 2 for another 10 min, Sun et al. (1999) measured carbon partitioning into

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Yuji Nakata and Hidemi Izumi

such as use of fungicides, disinfecting agents, biocontrol agents, and physical treatments to control fungal spoilage ( Romanazzi et al., 2016 ). High CO 2 atmospheres have been shown in vitro ( García-Gimeno et al., 2002 ; Hoogerwerf et al., 2002

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Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, Almudena Bayo-Canha, Gregorio López-Ortega, and Francisco M. del Amor

is well known that global climate change is producing a marked increase in the atmospheric CO 2 concentration, affecting several physiological processes in plants ( Saralabai et al., 1997 ). The most reported phenomenon induced by high CO 2 is an

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Jingjin Yu, Hongmei Du, Ming Xu, and Bingru Huang

metabolic functions within the plant such as regulating plant water relations, signaling, protein synthesis as well as stress defense ( Sairam et al., 2000 ; Zobayed et al., 2005 ). CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere are more than 100 μmol·mol −1