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J.P. Syvertsen and M.L. Smith

Four-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on either the relatively fast-growing rootstock `Volkamer' lemon (VL) (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) or on the slower-growing rootstock sour orange (SO) (C. aurantium L.) were transplanted into 7.9-m3 drainage lysimeter tanks filled with native Candler sand, irrigated similarly, and fertilized at three N rates during 2.5 years. After 6 months, effects of N application rate and rootstock on tree growth, evapotranspiration, fruit yield, N uptake, and leaching were measured during the following 2 years. When trees were 5 years old, low, medium, and high N application rates averaged about 79,180, or 543 g N/tree per year and about 126,455, or 868 g N/tree during the following year. Recommended rates average about 558 g N/tree per year. A lysimeter tank with no tree and additional trees growing outside lysimeters received the medium N treatment. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water increased with N rate and exceeded 10 mg·liter-1 for trees receiving the high rates and also for the no tree tank. Leachate N concentration and total N recovered was greater from trees on SO than from those on VL. Average N uptake efficiency of medium N rate trees on VL was 6870 of the applied N and 61 % for trees on SO. Nitrogen uptake efficiency decreased with increased N application rates. Trees outside lysimeters had lower leaf N and fruit yield than lysimeter trees. Overall, canopy volume and leaf N concentration increased with N rate, but there was no effect of N rate on fibrous root dry weight. Fruit yield of trees on SO was not affected by N rate but higher N resulted in greater yield for trees on VL. Rootstock had no effect on leaf N concentration, but trees on VI. developed larger canopies, had greater fibrous root dry weight, used more water, and yielded more fruit than trees on SO. Based on growth, fruit yield and N leaching losses, currently recommended N rates were appropriate for trees on the more vigorous VL rootstock but were 22% to 69 % too high for trees on SO.

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Xiaomeng Li, Rangjin Xie, Zhenhua Lu, and Zhiqin Zhou

comprised all accessions of C. medica , C. reticulata , two accessions of C. limonia , and C. jambhiri (BS 65). Clade B consisted of all accessions of Papeda , C. grandis , C. sinensis , C. aurantium , and C. paradisi ‘Marsh’, plus two accessions

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Ed Stover, Randall Driggers, Matthew L. Richardson, David G. Hall, Yongping Duan, and Richard F. Lee

our study. Progenies from accessions of C. aurantium displayed the greatest variability for ACC susceptibility within the same species: ‘Zhuluan’ (CRC 3930) displayed much lower susceptibility than several other accessions (CRC 2717, CRC 628

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Dafna Langgut

purposes. Yet, according to van der Veen (2011) , there is confusion in references between the lime and the lemon, and therefore, it is not certain which of the two fruit types was imported. Sour (bitter) orange ( C. aurantium ) The hybridization that

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Sharon Inch, Ed Stover, Randall Driggers, and Richard F. Lee

from 4% to 40% dieback. Within the groups of the genus Citrus , several parent genotypes had less than 25% dieback and included C. reticulata (CRC 2590), C. sinensis (CRC 3858), C. maxima (CRC 3945), C. hassaku (CRC 3907 and 3942), C

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Vicente Gimeno, James P. Syvertsen, Inma Simon, Vicente Martinez, Jose M. Camara-Zapata, Manuel Nieves, and Francisco Garcia-Sanchez

flooding of ‘Verna’ lemon trees on SO rootstock relative to trees that were interstocked with two different orange varieties. Materials and Methods Trees and growth condition. Two-year-old ‘Verna’ lemon trees [ Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] grafted on SO ( C

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Y. Levy, J. Lifshitz, Y. De Malach, and Y. David

The effect of irrigation with saline water on several citrus genotypes was evaluated in a short-term field experiment. Salinity levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.4 dS·m–1. Comparatively salt-tolerant Citrus species and Citrus × Poncirus hybrids were tested for their possible use as rootstocks for commercial citrus cultivars irrigated with brackish water. All the tested genotypes survived the highest salinities. At all salinity levels, the best chloride excluder was Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.), and the worst was sour orange (C. aurantium L.). Gou Tou Cheng (C. aurantium hybrid?) and Rangpur (C. limonia Osb.) × Troyer citrange (C. sinensis L. × Poncirus trifoliata L.) RT803 were found to be promising genotypes for further evaluation as rootstocks tolerant to high salinities. Rangpur was unsuitable because of foot rot.

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Eliezer S. Louzada, Jude W. Grosseti, Frederick G. Gmitter Jr., Beatriz Nielsen, J.L. Chandler, Xiu Xin Deng, and Nicasio Tusa

Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of vigorous tetraploid somatic hybrid plants from eight complementary parental rootstock combinations: Citrus reticulata Blanco (Cleopatra mandarin) + C. aurantium L. (sour orange), C. reticulata (Cleopatra mandarin) + C. jambhiri Lush (rough lemon), C. reticulata (Cleopatra mandarin) + C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. (Volkamer lemon), C. reticulata (Cleopatra mandarin) + C. limonia Osb. (Rang-pur), C. sinensis (L.) Osb. (Hamlin sweet orange) + C. limonia (Rangpur), C. aurantium (sour orange) + C. volkameriana (Volkamer lemon) zygotic seedling, C. auruntium hybrid (Smooth Flat Seville) + C. jambhiri (rough lemon), and C. sinensis (Valencia sweet orange) + Carrizo citrange [C. paradisi Macf. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. Diploid plants were regenerated from nonfused callus-derived protoplasts of Valencia sweet orange and Smooth Flat Seville and from nonfused leaf protoplasts of sour orange, Rangpur, rough lemon, and Volkamer lemon. Regenerated plants were classified according to leaf morphology, chromosome number, and leaf isozyme profiles. All somatic hybrid plants were tetraploid (2n = 4× = 36). One autotetraploid plant of the Volkamer lemon zygotic was recovered, apparently resulting from a homokaryotic fusion. These eight new citrus somatic hybrids have been propagated and entered into field trials.

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Fabio De Pasquale, Salvatore Giuffrida, and Francesco Carimi

Minigrafting was used for rescue of tissue culture regenerants of the following four species of Citrus: sour orange (C. aurantium L. `AA CNR 31'), sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb. `Valencia Late'], lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm. `Femminello Comune'] and mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore `Tardivo di Ciaculli'). The grafting was carried out with different scion types including shoots, roots, inverted roots and somatic embryos. This material was obtained in vitro from embryogenic style-derived callus. Seedlings of open-pollinated sour orange (C. aurantium L.), Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and `Troyer' citrange [C. sinensis Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] were used as rootstocks. Minigrafting of shoots, roots, inverted roots and embryos regenerated in vitro allowed successful rescue of these four species. Percentages of successful minigrafts ranged from 100% (shoots) to 2.5% (inverted roots). The probability of successful graft unions increased with the age of the rootstock. The final mean canopy leaf area (120 days after grafting) ranged from 5.2 cm2 (`Tardivo di Ciaculli' mandarin grafted on 6-month-old Cleopatra mandarin) to 157.9 cm2 (`Valencia Late' sweet orange grafted on 18-month-old Cleopatra mandarin). In this work we examined some of the variables which influenced minigrafting and we determined the efficacy of this method for rescue of in vitro regenerants of Citrus. This method is also suggested as a technique to produce a high percentage of viable plants from in vitro regenerants difficult to root.

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Sudahono, D.H. Byrne, and R.E. Rouse

Eighteen citrus rootstock seedling lines were tested for their tolerance to Fe chlorosis using sand culture. Potassium carbonate was used to induce Fe-deficiency chlorosis. Chlorosis was quantified by 1) visual ratings, 2) SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter readings, 3) leaf chlorophyll concentration, 4) leaf active Fe, and 5) leaf total Fe. The first four criteria were well correlated among each other but not with leaf total Fe. Although any of the first four measurements could be used to quantify chlorosis, visual ratings and SPAD-502 readings were more convenient. The rootstock that have been reported to be tolerant or very susceptible to Fe chlorosis in calcareous soils were rated similarly for tolerance to bicarbonate-induced Fe chlorosis. Nontrifoliate types such as Texas sour orange (C. aurantium L.), Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), Vangasay lemon (C. limon Burro.), and Ridge pineapple x Milam 1578-201 (C. sinensis L. Osbeck x C. jambhiri) were tolerant to moderately tolerant. Although most of the trifoliate hybrids tested were moderately susceptible to very susceptible, Smooth Seville x Argentine trifoliate {[C. grands (L.) Osbeck x C. aurantium] x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.} and F-81-12 citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata) exhibited relatively high tolerance to lime-induced Fe chlorosis.