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Metin Turan, Nizamettin Ataoglu, Adem Gunes, Taskin Oztas, Atilla Dursun, Melek Ekinci, Quirine M. Ketterings and Yuh Ming Huang

( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia ) and crisp lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa ). Brussels sprout is not commonly grown, but there is an increasing interest in its production as a result of its high nutritional value. Boron plays an important

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Tej P. Acharya, Gregory E. Welbaum and Ramón A. Arancibia

reduce irrigation requirements and improve WUE. The use of LT can be beneficial to extend the harvest season of brussels sprouts ( Brassica oleracea L. Group Gemmifera). Brussels sprout is a cool season, frost-tolerant vegetable crop from the family

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Chien Y. Wang

Mature leaves of kale (Brassica oleracea L., Alboglabra group) and collard (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), and Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group) were heated by moist air at 40, 45, 50, or 55 °C for durations of 0, 30, 60, or 90 minutes. Heating of kale at 45 °C for 30 minutes was effective in maintaining better postharvest quality, delaying yellowing, and reducing losses of sugars and organic acids during subsequent storage at 15 °C. Exposure of collard at 40 °C for 60 minutes also delayed yellowing and maintained turgidity of the leaves. Other treatments were either less beneficial, not effective, or caused injury. Heat injury occurred when temperature and duration exceeded the tolerance levels. In some cases, heat-injured tissues remained green but developed fungal infection. Heat treatments had no measurable effects on the rate of senescence or storage quality of Brussels sprouts.

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Chien Y. Wang

Mature leaves of kale (Brassica oleracea L., Alboglabra group) and collard (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), and Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group) were heated by moist air at 40, 45, 50, or 55 °C for durations of 0, 30, 60, or 90 minutes. Heating of kale at 45 °C for 30 minutes was effective in maintaining better postharvest quality, delaying yellowing, and reducing losses of sugars and organic acids during subsequent storage at 15 °C. Exposure of collard at 40 °C for 60 minutes also delayed yellowing and maintained turgidity of the leaves. Other treatments were either less beneficial, not effective, or caused injury. Heat injury occurred when temperature and duration exceeded the tolerance levels. In some cases, heat-injured tissues remained green but developed fungal infection. Heat treatments had no measurable effects on the rate of senescence or storage quality of Brussels sprouts.

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Remmie Booij and Bert Meurs

The harvest season for Brussels sprouts runs mainly from September to March. During this period the daylength is relatively short and the light intensity is low. Bud growth occurs, when photosynthesis is low. The question is, whether actual photosynthetic rate or rcdistrubution of earlier fixed photosynthates is the main source for bud growth. The aim of the present experiment was first to determine the gain of C and N and the distribution of these plant constituents within the plant, and second the role of the apical bud. Partitioning of dry matter over the plant parts and the allocation along the stem were determined. Contents of C, N, NO3 and soluble sugars in the dry matter were ascertained, and the total amounts of these components could be determined. From this analysis fluxes were calculated and the role of redistribution was investigated. Redistribution of soluble sugars and N from leaves before shedding contributed substantially to bud growth. The apical bud did not affect total dry matter production, but if removed, more dry matter became available for bud growth in the top region of the plant, resulting in a higher total bud yield.

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M.M. Gaye and A.R. Maurer

Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of row covers (no row cover or Agryl P-17), seeding date, and seeding method (seeding in a furrow or into a smooth soil surface) on the development, harvest date, and yield of brussels sprouts [Brassica oleracea L. (Gemmifera Group)] grown in southwestern British Columbia. The treatments were applied to the plants in the seedbed after which the plants were transplanted in the field and grown to horticultural maturity. In both years, row covers increased soil temperatures and advanced seedling development and transplanting dates compared with uncovered treatments. Leaf weight ratio (LWR) decreased, specific leaf area (SLA) increased, and leaf area ratio (LAR) was unaffected by the application of row covers. Early seeding also promoted early transplanting. In 1987, plots were harvested when plants reached horticultural maturity. There was a linear effect of seeding date on harvest date, early seeding promoted an early harvest, and row covers advanced the sprout harvest of plants seeded earliest (24 Mar). In 1988 all treatments were harvested from 17 to 19 Oct. and marketable yield was improved by early seeding and by row covers. Seeding method did not influence plant growth or yield.

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Mark W. Farnham

A collection of collard (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group) germplasm, including 13 cultivars or breeding lines and 5 landraces, was evaluated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and compared to representatives of kale (Acephala group), cabbage (Capitata group), broccoli (Italica group), Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera group), and cauliflower (Botrytis group). Objectives were to assess genetic variation and relationships among collard and other crop entries, evaluate intrapopulation variation of open-pollinated (OP) collard lines, and determine the potential of collard landraces to provide new B. oleracea genes. Two hundred nine RAPD bands were scored from 18 oligonucleotide decamer primers when collard and other B. oleracea entries were compared. Of these, 147 (70%) were polymorphic and 29 were specific to collard. Similarity indices between collard entries were computed from RAPD data and these ranged from 0.75 to 0.99 with an average of 0.83. Collard entries were most closely related to cabbage (similarity index = 0.83) and Brussels sprouts entries (index = 0.80). Analysis of individuals of an OP cultivar and landrace indicated that intrapopulation genetic variance accounts for as much variation as that observed between populations. RAPD analysis identified collard landraces as unique genotypes and showed them to be sources of unique DNA markers. The systematic collection of collard landraces should enhance diversity of the B. oleracea germplasm pool and provide genes for future crop improvement.

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Charles F. Forney and Michael A. Jordan

Methanethiol (MT) is a volatile compound responsible for the unpleasant odor evolved when fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) is held under anaerobic conditions. Inductive atmospheres can develop in storage, transportation containers, or modified atmosphere packages, resulting in reduced quality. To determine if related vegetables are capable of producing MT, 12 different vegetables from the genus Brassica were cut into ready-to-eat forms. Fifty-gram samples were sealed in 500-mL glass jars and flushed with N2. After 24 h in the dark at 20 °C, headspace samples from the jars were analyzed for MT and other volatiles. Headspace concentration of MT was greatest in broccoli florets, followed by pak choi (Brassica rapa L., Chinensis group) leaf blades, savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group), broccoflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group), and green and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., Capitata group). Broccoli stems, kale (Brassica oleracea L., Acephala group), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L., Gemmifera group), pak choi petioles, rutabaga (Brassica napus L., Napobrassica group) root, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., Botrytis group) florets, Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L., Pekinensis group), and kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L., Gongylodes group) tubers produced <3% of the MT produced by broccoli florets. Green tissues appeared to have a greater capacity to produce MT than nongreen tissues. Anaerobic production of CO2 and ethanol did not relate to the vegetable's ability to produce MT. The production of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) were also induced by the anaerobic conditions. Green cabbage produced the greatest concentration of DMDS, followed by savoy cabbage and broccoli florets. Production of DMTS was similar to the pattern observed for MT, but DMDS production was not highly correlated with MT production.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

with sprouts of alfalfa, brussels sprouts, mungbean, and radish for overall nutritional quality. Although it is well established that sprouts from seeds of cruciferous plants ( Brassica sp.) such as brussels sprouts, broccoli, and cauliflower are rich

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

to those in sprouts of alfalfa, brussels sprout, mungbean, and radish based on literature values for these crops. Given that there is a lack of fatty acid profile of canola sprouts in the literature, we are now reporting the contents of various fatty