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Angela R. Davis and Stephen R. King

The Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of MSW-28, a watermelon [ Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai)] line that exhibits medium sugar content (brix) and full flavor of

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S.R. Drake, T.A. Eisele, D.C. Elfving, M.A. Drake, S.L. Drake and D.B. Visser

In a study conducted over three crop seasons, Ethrel (ETH) increased the Brix, sucrose, and sorbitol content of 'Scarletspur Delicious' apple juice while reducing the fructose content. Both longer preharvest exposure to, and higher concentrations of, ETH had a stronger influence than application closer to harvest and/or at lesser amounts. Time of ETH application tended to influence individual carbohydrates more so than amount of ETH applied. ETH reduced total acidity and also reduced apple juice individual acid (quinic and malic) contents with longer preharvest exposure or higher concentrations. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine [AVG (ReTain)] reduced both Brix and sucrose content of 'Scarletspur Delicious' apple juice, but had no influence on either total acidity or individual acid contents. Combinations of AVG with ETH tended to counteract the influence of either used alone on total Brix, carbohydrates, total acidity and individual acids. Mineral content of 'Scarletspur Delicious' apple juice was not strongly influenced by application of either ETH or AVG.

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Tommy E. Thompson

Variability in soluble solids concentration (SSC, °Brix) in liquid endosperm (LE) among individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] fruits and among fruits from different trees and cultivars using a sugar refractometer was determined at College Station, Texas, in 1997. Repeatability of readings from LE from the same fruit was excellent. Fruits from the same tree did not vary for SSC, but significant differences among clones were common. Soluble solids concentration appears to decrease as the fruit matures. The SSC values for two full-sib clones (one susceptible to water split and one resistant to water split) were similar. This information discounts the possibility that high osmotic water potential gradients alone induce the water split phenomenon. A wide range of SSC percents was recorded. A low of 0.5% was recorded for LE from a `Houma' fruit, while 6.1% was recorded for LE from a fruit from a drought-stressed `Burkett' tree.

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Todd C. Wehner, Rachel P. Naegele and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

directly evaluated in watermelon to date. Watermelon breeding has resulted in a diversity of fruit sizes, rind color, rind patterns, and flesh color. Most cultivars have soluble solids content (°Brix) between 8% and 15% and acidity (flesh pH) of 5

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Ed Echeverria and Mohamed Ismail

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J.C. Beaulieu, J.M. Lea, G. Eggleston and Z. Peralta-Inga

Markedly higher average sucrose (58.1%) was recovered from mesocarp tissue of six orange-flesh cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes over three seasons compared to glucose (17.5%) and fructose (25.6%). A significant decrease in sucrose concentration was observed in the fall for all six genotypes, and the glucose (21.2%) and fructose (33.5%) ratios were also higher in the fall; markedly different than the spring fruit averages. The female inbreds had significantly (P = 0.05) lower glucose, fructose, sucrose, and total sugars than the commercial hybrids. Compared to the male and female inbreds, commercial hybrids had significantly (P = 0.05) higher concentrations of fructose, sucrose and total sugars, but not glucose. Two refractometric digital measures of °Brix (°Brix-At and °Brix-II) in homogenized slurries were positively correlated (r = 0.914; P ≤ 0.001), and were also correlated with total sugars (r ≥ 0.839) and sucrose (r ≥ 0.752). °Brix of cubes (°Brix-cube) was significantly correlated with sucrose and total sugars (r ≥ 0.627). Total sugar was positively correlated with sucrose (r = 0.843; P ≤ 0.001). Eastern-type U.S. melons had significantly (P = 0.05) higher °Brix-cube and °Brix-At compared to U.S. western shipper-types. Female inbreds were significantly (P = 0.05) lower in mean °Brix (all three measures) compared to the hybrids and male inbreds, and female inbreds had higher pH than the male inbreds. Western shippers had significantly (P = 0.05) higher pH compared to eastern genotypes. The predominant organic acid in all six genotypes was succinic acid, generally followed by oxalic, citric/isocitric, then malic acid. Succinic acid recovery was significantly higher in all six genotypes harvested in the fall, compared to spring. Eastern genotypes had significantly (P = 0.05) lower organic acids compared to western genotypes. Results indicate that maternal inheritance appears to confer lower sugar accumulating capacity and higher pH, which, is associated with vacuolar acid invertase (AI) and hexose balance. Breeding programs should focus on hybrid vigor derived through accentuating homozygous female inbreds with lower pH and higher capacity for sucrose accumulation, as well as morphological and agronomic traits often carried in the female line.

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Javier Fernandez-Salvador, Bernadine C. Strik, Yanyun Zhao and Chad E. Finn

), percent soluble solids (TSS, °Brix), fruit firmness, pH, and titratable acidity (TA); the sugar-to-acid ratio was calculated from TSS and TA. The firmness of each berry was measured using a University of California Manual Firmness Tester (Serial No. 364

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Frederick S. Davies, Glenn R. Zalman, Ed Stover and Scott Ciliento

EcoLyst, a formulation of N-N-diethyl-2-(4-methylbenzyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride containing 1 g/floz [4.5 oz/gal (33.8 g·L-1)] a.i., is a plant growth regulator that has been reported to increase soluble solids concentration (SSC) in juice oranges by 0.6% to 1.2%. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of EcoLyst application for increasing SSC in Florida oranges (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi), and to identify the optimum rate and time of application. Experiments were conducted for three seasons using `Hamlin,' `Pineapple,' and `Valencia' sweet oranges; and for two seasons using `Flame,' `Marsh,' and `Ray Ruby' grapefruit, all in commercial groves. EcoLyst was applied at 6 and 12 floz/acre (0.44 and 0.88 L·ha-1) for oranges and 16 and 32 ppm (mg·L-1) [effectively 9 and 18 floz/acre (0.66 and 1.32 L·ha-1) in most sprays] for grapefruit, and included Silwet L-77 adjuvant at 0.05%. Applications were made at several stages of development from prebloom to initial fruit set. In all cases, SSC was determined as juice corrected SSC, by adjusting refractometer readings based on titratable acidity. In 13 trials with sweet orange only five displayed significant increases in SSC (P ≤ 0.05) resulting from EcoLyst application. Two additional trials produced SSC increases significant at P < 0.10. Even where significant increases in SSC occurred they were typically observed in only one harvest and at one time of application and were always relatively low in magnitude (highest increase over controls was 0.38%). No rate or timing of EcoLyst application was consistently associated with best response, although eight of nine SSC increases observed in orange occurred with applications ranging from prebloom to 25% open flowers. Only one significant increase in SSC was observed in five trials with grapefruit. In these studies, increases in SSC resulting from EcoLyst application were neither sufficiently consistent nor large enough to justify a recommendation for commercial use in Florida citrus.

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Todd W. Wert, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Jose X. Chaparro, E. Paul Miller and Robert E. Rouse

; Reichert-Jung, Depew, NY) was used to measure the SSC of the remaining undiluted supernatant and was expressed as °Brix. SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used for statistical analysis. Means were determined using PROC GLM and means separations

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Lajos Helyes, Zoltán Pék and Andrea Lugasi

Soluble solids (Brixo), carbohydrate, organic acid, lycopene, polyphenols and HMF content of indeterminate round type tomato Lemance F1 fruits were measured in six ripeness stages from mature green to deep red stage. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were received directly and used to calculate from which the a*/b* ratio was calculated. The Brixo, carbohydrate, lycopene and HMF content were the highest in the deep red stage. Carbohydrate contents constitute nearly 50% of the Brixo. The mature green stage had the lowest acid content but in subsequent stages it was fundamentally unchanged. Polyphenol content changed little during fruit ripening. Lycopene content changed significantly during maturation and accumulated mainly in the deep red stage. Analyses showed that a*/b* was closely correlated with lycopene and can be used to characterize stages of maturity in fresh tomatoes.