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Yi-Chen Chen, Wei-Chun Chang, San-Tai Wang, and Shu-I Lin

Grafting is widely used in the commercial production of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae) and solanaceous (Solanaceae) vegetables, but seldom in the production of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata group). In our study, we developed a tube grafting method for cabbage using the ‘K-Y cross’ cabbage as the scion and ‘Tsuei Jin’ chinese kale (B. oleracea Alboglabra group) as the rootstock (K-Y/TJ), and then used the K-Y/TJ grafted seedlings to identify the best healing conditions. The examined healing conditions included temperature (15, 20, or 25 °C), relative humidity (RH; 75%, 85%, or 95%), and light intensity (high light intensity, 79 to 107 μmol·m–2·s–1; low light intensity, 38.6 to 58.8 μmol·m–2·s–1; or full darkness, 0 μmol·m–2·s–1). Considering all the healing conditions, the K-Y/TJ grafted seedlings healing at 20 °C, 95% RH, and high light intensity exhibited survival rates of up to 96.7% and overall superior seedling quality. ‘K-Y cross’ cabbages were then grafted onto chinese kale rootstocks, and the head traits of all grafted plants were comparable to those of nongrafted and/or self-grafted ‘K-Y cross’ plants. ‘K-Y cross’ plants grafted on ‘Jie Lan’ chinese kale rootstocks had greater ascorbic acid and total soluble solid (TSS) contents than nongrafted and self-grafted ‘K-Y cross’ plants. Overall, this research describes a successful tube grafting method and the optimal healing conditions for grafted cabbage seedlings, which can be used as a tool to improve head quality.

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A.A. Csizinszky and D.J. Schuster

The impact of two insecticide spray application schedules (weekly or on demand), three N and K rates [1x, 1.5x, and 2x; 1x = (kg·ha-1) 130N-149K], and two transplant container cell sizes [small, 21 mm wide × 51 mm deep (7.5 cm 3), and large, 38 mm wide × 70 mm deep (33.7 cm”)] on `Market Prize' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) yield was investigated in Fall and Winter 1982-83 and Spring 1983. Fenvalerate was sprayed at 0.112 kg·ha-1. For the weekly schedule, 10 sprays were applied in fall and winter and nine in spring; for the on-demand schedule, two sprays were applied in both seasons. There were more insect-damaged heads in both seasons in the plots sprayed on demand than in those sprayed weekly. In fall and winter, the combination of a weekly schedule with 1.5x and 2x N and K rates increased marketable yields over those of the on-demand schedule. Marketable yields at the 1.5x and 2x N and K rates were similar for plants in small or large transplant container cells, but the lx N and K rate applied to plants in small cells reduced yields. In spring, both application schedules produced similar yields, but yield increased with increasing N and K rates and large transplant container cells. Insecticide application schedule and cell size did not affect leaf nutrient concentration significantly, but increasing N and K rates resulted in higher N, P, and K leaf concentrations. Concentrations of N and K in the soil at 42 days after transplanting (DAT) were higher with increasing N and K rates. At harvest (86 DAT), only K concentrations had increased with N and K rates. Chemical name used: cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl 1-4 chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl benzeneacetate) (fenvalerate).

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Reeser C. Manley and Rita L. Hummel

The index of injury (It) and tissue ionic conductance (gTi) formulas for analyzing electrolyte leakage data from freeze-stressed tissues of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) were compared. The two formulas produced similar results in calculating the relative freezing responses of stem pith, lamina, and petiole tissues. Disagreement occurred only with lamina tissues when the magnitude of ion leakage was low. Vital staining of pith and petiole tissues with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride indicated that the tissue TK50 (the temperature resulting in 50% injury), derived from It data, was a reliable indicator of the freeze-killing point. These results support the use of the simpler It method for analyzing electrolyte leakage data in studies of cabbage freezing tolerance.

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Ningping Lu and J.H. Edwards

A greenhouse pot study was conducted with a Wynnville sandy loam surface soil to determine the influence of application rates of poultry litter (PL) on growth and nutrient uptake of collard (Brassica oleracea, Acephata Group L., cv. Champion), and the residual effects of PL on growth and nutrient uptake of cabbage (Brassica oleracea, Capitata Group L., cv. Rio Verde). PL at 0, 13, 26, 53, and 106 g·kg–1 was incorporated into limed (pH 6.5) and nonlimed (pH 5.2) soil. Collard plants were grown for 52 days. The residual effects of PL were evaluated by growing three successive crops of cabbage without further application of PL (total 218 days). Collard plants were severely damaged or killed within 7 days after transplanting when the application rate of PL exceeded 26 g·kg–1 soil. Maximum dry matter yield of cabbage shifted from 26 to 106 g PL/kg soil during three successive crops. After four successive growth periods, 6% to 37% of N, 3% to 62% of Ca, 20% to 120% of K, 5% to 60% of Mg, and 3% to 25% of P added through PL was removed by plants. The decrease in water-extractable K accounted for the decrease in the soil salinity. Our results suggest that application rates of PL ≥ 53 g·kg–1 soil can result in elevated levels of salts and NH3 in soil, which can produce severe salt stress and seedling injury.

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Theodore J.K. Radovich and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

Volume measurements are useful in crop quality management because they offer three-dimensional estimates of commodity size, which is often closely related to commodity weight and density. The objective of this study was to compare volume estimates calculated with the sphere and spherical ellipsoid volume formulae with direct measures of volume via water displacement across a population of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) heads varying widely in shape. A total of 157 heads with polar (P): equatorial (E) diameter ratios ranging between 0.5 (flat) to 2.1 (tall) were harvested at horticultural maturity from plants grown in 2002 and 2003 at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) in Wooster, Ohio. The sphere formula underestimated volume in heads with P:E ratios <1 and overestimated volume in heads with P:E ratios >1. Use of the spherical ellipsoid formula reduced the shapedependency of volume estimates and was determined to be a valuable tool for the accurate, precise, and rapid measurement of head volume.

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Howard F. Harrison Jr. and Mark W. Farnham

Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata group) in the United States but not for other crop groups within the species. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli (B. oleracea Italica group) and cabbage cultivars to clomazone to assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Four broccoli cultivars (Captain, Green Magic, Legacy, and Patron) and four cabbage cultivars (Bravo, SC 100, Stone Head, and Vantage Point) were evaluated in all experiments. In a greenhouse experiment where seedlings were transplanted into potting medium containing clomazone at 0, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 parts per million (ppm), ‘Bravo’ cabbage was most susceptible. Its injury ratings and shoot weight reduction at 1.0 ppm were similar to ratings and shoot weight reduction for the other cabbage cultivars at 4.0 ppm. Among the broccoli cultivars, Patron was highly susceptible, exhibiting injury and shoot weight reduction similar to Bravo. Green Magic was the most tolerant broccoli cultivar, and it exhibited injury and growth reduction similar to the tolerant cabbage cultivars. In a field experiment where clomazone was applied pretransplanting at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 lb/acre, 0.25 lb/acre caused moderate chlorosis to the susceptible cultivars, Bravo and Patron. At 0.50 and 1.0 lb/acre, most cultivars exhibited chlorosis at 2 weeks after transplanting (WAT); however, tolerant cultivars recovered and injury was often not observed at 6 WAT. At 1.0 lb/acre, chlorosis persisted until maturity on ‘Bravo’ and ‘Patron’ foliage. Clomazone did not reduce mean broccoli head weight or the percentage of plants producing market-size heads. Mean cabbage head weight for ‘Bravo’ was reduced by clomazone at 1.0 lb/acre. This study indicates that the variability in clomazone tolerance among broccoli cultivars may be similar to that among cabbage cultivars and suggests that the herbicide can be used safely on tolerant broccoli cultivars at rates that are recommended for cabbage.

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Anwar A. Khan

ACC-derived ethylene production was used as an index of seed vigor of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cabbage [Brassica oleracea (Capitata Group)], tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sweet corn (Zea mays L.) seeds. Seeds were aged at 40C and 93% relative humidity over saturated solution of KH2PO4 for various times to obtain seeds of differing vigor. Naturally aged lettuce seeds, differing in vigor, were also used. Depending on the seed type, 0.25 to 2 mm ACC (saturating dose) was needed to produce maximal amounts of ethylene. Seeds in the presence of ACC produced a much larger amount of ethylene than those in the absence of ACC, the ACC-derived ethylene could be detected before germination, and ACC had no adverse effect on germination. ACC-derived ethylene production paralleled vigor loss as determined by a decrease in percentage germination over a soak period required for complete germination of nonaged seeds (16 hours for lettuce, 24 hours for cabbage, and 48 hours for tomato and sweet corn), an increase in mean germination time (determined for lettuce only), and a decrease in seedling growth (determined for snap bean only). Second degree polynomial and logarithmic equations generated for the relationship of ACC-derived ethylene production to germination or growth parameters following seed aging, provided good to excellent fit. As a vigor test, the ACC-ethylene procedure has several advantages over the non-ACC ethylene procedure: It improves the sensitivity of the test by enhancing ethylene production, permits detection of small differences in vigor, and allows detection of ethylene before germination within a few hours of soaking. Chemical name used: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).

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Lara Abou Chehade, Marco Fontanelli, Luisa Martelloni, Christian Frasconi, Michele Raffaelli, and Andrea Peruzzi

( Brassica oleracea (capitata group)) and tomato ( Lycopersicon lycopersicum ) using a propane flamer Crop Protection 26 134 144

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Stefania De Pascale, Luisa Dalla Costa, Simona Vallone, Giancarlo Barbieri, and Albino Maggio

), cucumber [ Cucumis sativus ( Yuan et al., 2006 )], bell pepper ( Sezen et al., 2006 ), okra [ Abelmoschus esculentus ( Tiwari et al., 1998 )], cabbage [ Brassica oleracea Capitata group ( Tiwari et al., 2003 )], eggplant [ Solanum melongena ( Aujla et