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William A. Hoch, Geunhwa Jung, and Brent H. McCown

A significant pest affecting commonly planted Betula spp. is the birch leafminer (Fenusa pusilla Lepeletier), an insect that can be present in large populations in the landscape and can greatly reduce the vigor and ornamental value of these trees. Twenty-two interspecific crosses were performed between leafminer resistant and susceptible Betula species in an attempt to create the novel combination of ornamental white bark and significant leafminer resistance. Of the nine successful crosses, two produced resistant offspring. Progeny of the diploid × hexaploid cross B. turkestanica Litvin (2x) × B. alleghaniensis Britt. (6x) displayed a broad range of resistance levels, likely the result of segregating alleles contributed by the hexaploid parent. All crosses involving highly resistant individuals of B. costata Trautv. (2x) yielded leafminer susceptible progeny. These results suggest that the larval antibiosis demonstrated by B. alleghaniensis and B. costata is inherited as a recessive trait, and exhibits a gene dosage effect as evidenced by the B. turkestanica × B. alleghaniensis offspring. While most progeny of the B. populifolia Marsh (2x) × B. maximowicziana Regal (2x) cross were susceptible, a single resistant offspring, which was found to be triploid (3x), displayed a mechanism of resistance similar to that of a hypersensitive response. No strong intersectional barriers to hybridization were observed and all interploidy crosses were successful. The chromosome numbers of B. costata (2n = 2x = 28) and B. turkestanica (2n = 2x = 28) are reported here for the first time. The results of this study indicate that the potential exists for the development of insect resistant, ornamental white-barked birch clones through the implementation of a planned, systematic breeding program.

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Todd P. West, Gregory Morgenson, Larry Chaput, and Dale E. Herman

. Macmillan, New York, NY Meier-Dinkel, A. 1992 Micropropagation of birches (Betula spp.), p. 40–81. High-tech and micropropagation II. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. NOAA 2012 National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Drought for Aug

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Mengmeng Gu, James A. Robbins, and Curt R. Rom

.A. Rom, C.R. 2004 Early field performance of ornamental birch taxa ( Betula spp .) at Fayetteville and Hope Ark. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Series 520 41 43 Gu, M. Rom, C.R. Robbins, J.A. 2003 Leaf gas

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Ajay Nair and Donglin Zhang

, 1986 ). Low overwinter survival has been a significant problem in several important plants such as sugar maple [ Acer saccharum ( Donnelly and Yawney, 1972 ; Goodman and Stimart, 1987 )], birch [ Betula spp. ( Flemer, 1982 )], witchalder

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Taina Laaksoharju and Erja Rappe

common trees in Finland as pine ( Pinus spp.), birch ( Betula spp.), spruce ( Picea spp.), apple ( Malus spp.), and winter-garbed, broad-leaved trees. On the other hand, drawings made by the Helsinki children represented only two recognizable species

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Constantinos Tzerakis, Dimitrios Savvas, Nick Sigrimis, and Georgios Mavrogiannopoulos

nutrient uptake and avoid toxicities depends on plant genotype. Denny and Wilkins (1987) found that tolerant genotypes of Betula spp. trees to high Zn concentration could maintain control of Zn uptake within a wider range of external Zn concentrations

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Mengmeng Gu, Curt R. Rom, James A. Robbins, and Derrick M. Oosterhuis

the management of Indian jujube ( Ziziphus mauritiana ) Weed Sci. 46 467 474 Gu, M. Robbins, J.A. Rom, C.R. 2004 Early field performance of ornamental birch taxa ( Betula spp .) at Fayetteville and Hope

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Amanda Garris, Lindsay Clark, Chris Owens, Steven McKay, James Luby, Kathy Mathiason, and Anne Fennell

dormancy and cold acclimation by low temperatures also was reported in red osier dogwood ( Cornus sericea ), birch species ( Betula spp.), and raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) ( Junttila et al., 2003 ; Palonen, 2006 ; Svendsen et al., 2007 ). Some woody