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Raymond Kessler, Allan M. Armitage, and David S. Koranski

Plug flats of Begonia × semperflorens-cultorum Hort. `Pizzazz Red', Vodka', and `Viva' were provided 0, 50, 125, or 200 μmol·s-1·m-2 metal-halide supplemental irradiance in the greenhouse for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks. Treatments were initiated when seedlings were in the first true leaf stage (2 weeks after sowing). Plug-grown begonias reached transplantable dry weight and leaf area after 4 weeks of 125 μmol·s-1·m-2 supplemental exposure, while those under O and 50 μmol·s-1·m-2 required 6 to 8 weeks. Fewest number of days to visible bud and anthesis and the fewest number of nodes for all cultivars occurred after 2 weeks of 125 μmol·s-1·m-2 supplemental exposure. The same conditions achieved the greatest final leaf area and plant height; however, final dry weight was unaffected. Additional supplemental irradiance and/or exposure time did not accelerate flowering or improve vegetative growth of finished plants.

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Candice A. Shoemaker and William H. Carlson

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Candice A. Shoemaker and William H. Carlson

Effects of temperature (18-32C), irradiance (0-4.3 mol day-1m-2), and pH (4.5-7.5) on germination of begonia were evaluated. Germination of 90-93% occurred at 18-24C and 79-83% at greater than 24C. There was no difference in germination between seeds receiving ambient irradiance conditions and seeds receiving 24hr supplemental irradiance (4.3 mol day-1m-2). Begonia did not germinate in the dark. On filter paper, no germination occurred at pH 4.5 or 5.0 while germination of 84 and 94% occurred within the pH range 5.5-7.5. In a peatlite medium, germination ≥80% occurred across all pH levels evaluated.

Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), day temperature (DT), and night temperature (NT) effects on vegetative development (3 true leaves to first flower) were determined. Plant height increased <2 cm as PPF level increased from 4.4 mol day-1m-2 to 12.15 mol day-1m-2. DT and NT influenced plant height, but as with PPF, the differences were only 1-2 cm. Neither average daily temperature (ADT) nor the difference between the DT and NT (DIF) affected plant height. Primary lateral shoot number increased as temperature and PPF increased.

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight

gained from these studies should be appealing to environmentally conscious consumers ( Yue et al., 2016 ). Materials and Methods A production system model for greenhouse production of an 11.4-cm wax begonia plant ( Begonia × semperflorens-cultorum Hort

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William J. Carpenter, Eric R. Ostmark, and John A. Cornell

Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort. `Prelude Scarlet' seeds varied within irradiance treatments in the irradiance level and duration that they required to reach the light saturation value and germinate. At high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), seeds required light for only part of the germination period to terminate photodormancy. Germination >90% was achieved after 4 and 1 day of 24 hours/day exposure to PAR at 15 and 150 μmol·m–2·s–1, respectively, but 82% germination occurred after 4 days of irradiance at 1.5 μmol·m–2·s–1 at 27C. Fewer days to 50% of final germination (T50) and between 10% and 90% germination (T90 – T10) were required when light saturation was achieved after 1 day at high PAR rather than after 4 days at a low PAR level. The total PAR that seeds received during 6, 12, or 24 hours of light daily determined the total percentage of the seeds that germinated. Seeds receiving 150 μmol·m–2·s–1 continuously for ≥24 hours achieved 90% germination, but 6 or 12 hours daily at this irradiance level required 4 days and 3 days, respectively. Trends in total germination percentages (G), T50, or T90 – T10 with increased PAR levels, hours of light daily, or days of light were found by fitted regression equations and Tukey's hsd procedure. Begonia seed germination was promoted by PAR levels of 1.5 to 150 μmol·m–2·s–1 for periods ≤4 days, with darkness thereafter until cotyledon emergence.

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J.B. Million, J.E. Barrett, T.A. Nell, and D.G. Clark

Experiments were conducted with four kinds of flowering plants to compare one-time vs. continuous application of paclobutrazol in subirrigation water. When a crop reached the stage at which it required growth regulator treatment, four concentrations of paclobutrazol were applied via subirrigation either one-time or continuously until the crop was terminated. Based upon regression equations, concentrations resulting in 30% size reduction for one-time applications of paclobutrazol were 0.01 mg·L-1 for Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum `Cocktail Gin', 0.09 mg·L-1 for Impatiens wallerana Hook. `Super Elfin White', 0.2 mg·L-1 for Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Tara', and 2.4 mg·L-1 for Petunia ×hybrida Vilm.-Andr. `Plum Crazy'. Respective optimal values for continuous application were 0.005, 0.02, 0.06, and 0.4 mg·L-1. Increasing the concentration for continuous application had a greater effect on paclobutrazol efficacy than did increasing the concentration for a single application. In a trial with impatiens `Super Elfin Salmon Blush', the paclobutrazol concentration was reduced 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% (single application) for each successive subirrigation event following an initial application of 0.1 mg·L-1 of paclobutrazol. The 50%, 75%, and 100% reduction treatments provided similar levels of size control. Dilution was more important when the reduction rate was less than 50%. Chemical name used: (±)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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Jeff S. Kuehny, Aaron Painter, and Patricia C. Branch

Eight bedding plant species were grown from plugs obtained from two sources. The plugs were transplanted into jumbo six packs and sprayed with a solution of chlormequat/daminozide with concentrations of 1000/800, 1250/1250, or 1500/5000 mg·L-1 when new growth was ≈5 cm in height or width. Three different species were grown in the fall (Dianthus chinensis L., `Telstar Mix', Petunia ×hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr., `Dreams Red', and Viola ×wittrockiana Gams., `Bingo Blue'), winter [Antirrhinum majus L., `Tahiti Mix', Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br., `Midget Red', and P. × hybrida, `Dreams Mix'], and spring [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, `Cooler Pink', Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schult., `Empire Red', and Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort., `Cocktail Mix']. The treatments significantly reduced finished plant size of all species for each season. There was a significant difference in finish size between sources for Dianthus, Antirrhinum, Matthiola, Catharanthus, Salvia, and Begonia. The efficacy of chlormequat/daminozide also differed for each source of Dianthus, Matthiola, and Begonia, but the treatments minimized the differences in finish size between sources for Petunia and Viola. Chemical names used: (2-chlorethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat); (N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid) (daminozide).

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Kimberly A. Klock-Moore

Growth of `Oasis Scarlet' begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort.) and `Super Elfin Violet' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f.) was compared in substrates containing compost made from used greenhouse substrates and yard trimmings (GHC) and in compost made from biosolids and yard trimmings (SYT). Treatments consisted of 100% compost (GHC or SYT) or compost combined with control substrate components at 60%, 30%, or 0%. Substrates containing SYT compost produced significantly larger begonia and impatiens plants than substrates containing GHC compost. Higher initial substrate nutrient concentrations in substrates containing SYT probably prompted increased begonia and impatiens growth because substrates containing SYT compost had significantly higher initial soluble salt, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations than substrates containing GHC compost. Begonia and impatiens shoot dry mass and size linearly increased as the percentage of SYT compost in the substrate increased from 0% to 100%. However, no difference in begonia or impatiens growth was observed among the different percentages of GHC compost. Initial soluble salt, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations also linearly increased as the percentage of SYT increased while only initial P, K, and Ca concentrations linearly increased as the percentage of GHC increased.

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Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly A. Moore

Salvia (Salvia splendens) `Red Vista' or `Purple Vista,' french marigold (Tagetes patula) `Little Hero Orange,' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) `Better Bell,' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) `Accent White,' and wax begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum) `Cocktail Vodka' were grown in 0.95-L (1-qt) containers using a 5 pine bark: 4 sedge peat: 1 sand substrate (Expts. 1 and 2) or Pro Mix BX (Expt. 2 only). They were fertilized weekly with 50 mL (1.7 fl oz) of a solution containing 100, 200, or 300 mg·L-1 (ppm) of nitrogen derived from 15N-6.5P-12.5K (1N-1P2O5-1K2O ratio) or 21N-3P-11.7K (3N-1P2O5-2K2O ratio) uncoated prills used in the manufacture of controlled-release fertilizers. Plants grown with Pro Mix BX were generally larger and produced more flowers or fruit than those grown with the pine bark mix. With few exceptions, plant color, root and shoot dry weights, and number of flowers or fruit were highly correlated with fertilization rate, but not with prill type. There appears to be little reason for using the more expensive 1-1-1 ratio prills, since they generally did not improve plant quality and may increase phosphorous runoff from bedding plant nurseries.

Open access

Brian Dintelmann, David Trinklein, and Kevin Bradley

’ french marigold ( Tagetes patula ), ‘Prelude’ wax begonia ( Begonia × semperflorens-cultorum ), ‘Titan’ madagascar periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ), ‘Double Zahara’ zinnia ( Zinnia marylandica ), and ‘Wizard’ coleus ( Solenostemon scutellarioides