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Aish Muhammad, Hamid Rashid, Iqbal Hussain, and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi

totally dependent upon control of this disease. The ultimate choice is production of disease-free banana plants through in vitro techniques to replace infected fields. In this study, various concentrations of BAP and kinetin were exploited to achieve

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Jalil Dejampour, Islam Majidi, Solmaz Khosravi, Sevil Farhadi, and Atena Shadmehr

with 3% (w/v) sucrose, 100 mg·L −1 of Phloroglucinol, 0.7% (w/v) plant agar (Duchefa Co., The Netherlands), and 0.5 mg·L −1 BAP. The pH was adjusted to the value of 5.7. All media were autoclaved at 121 °C for 15 min. The in vitro-established explants

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Fatemeh Haddadi, Maheran Abd Aziz, Ghizan Saleh, Azmi Abd Rashid, and Hossein Kamaladini

seems to be insufficient for commercialization. Cytokinins are known to play a major role in controlling shoot branching. To date, N6-benzylamino-purine (BAP) is the cytokinin that is mostly used on in vitro shoot proliferation of strawberry. In

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Kalyani M. Dias and Suzanne M.D. Rogers

This study reports some factors effecting rapid regeneration of Swingle Citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata).

Inter-nodal stem and root sections from in vitro grown seedlings were shocked with 10, 6, 2 or 0 mg/l BAP for 48 h and then transferred to hormone-free Murashige and Tucker (1961) medium gelled with 2 g/l Gelrite. Explants were cultured horizontally or vertically to study the effect of orientation on shoot initiation.

BAP shock had a pronounced effect on shoot regeneration by root, but not by stem explants. Root explants shocked with 10 mg/l BAP had the highest regeneration frequency. Only vertically placed root and stem explants produced shoots. Shoot buds were first observed in root explants about 10 days after BAP shock. Stem cuttings were slow in producing shoot buds which were first seen after 25 days. A total of 53 shoots were regenerated from 48 root explants while the same number of stem cuttings produced only 11 shoots. When subcultured onto the same medium, more than 85% of the shoots rooted, and were recovered as plants. Explant type, explant orientation and cytokinin shock all influenced regeneration.

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Michael W. Smith and William D. Goff

Greece reported BAP applied at 30 ppm in a lanolin paste to the edge of the rootstock and patch bud before tying with raffia and waxed improved June budding success using dormant collected and then seasoned budwood ( Pontikis et al., 1985 ). September

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L. Pedro Barrueto Cid, Andréa Rachel Ramos Cruz, and Luis Hernan Rodrigues Castro

Leaf explants of Coffea arabica cv. Rubi, `Catuaí Vermelho 81', and `IAPAR 59' were placed onto MS basal medium with 4 μm of picloram for 8-12 weeks in the dark at 27 ± 2 °C (standard temperature). Explants (`Rubi' and `Catuaí Vermelho 81') with callus were transferred to a SP basal medium plus 0, 12, 24, and 48 μm BAP, whereas for `IAPAR 59', only 48 μm BAP was added. After 8 weeks for `Rubi' and `Catuaí Vermelho 81' and after 12 weeks for `IAPAR 59', all cultivars showed indirect embryogenesis. Embryogenic material was transferred to a SP basal medium without BAP, in light (16-hour photoperiod) and standard temperature. In a second experiment, leaf explants belonging to all three cultivars were inoculated in petri dishes with SP basal medium plus 0, 2.5 and 5 μm BAP, in the dark at standard temperature. After 8 weeks, only `IAPAR 59' produced direct embryos. These were transferred to SP basal medium. About 30% of embryos developed abnormalities. Normal embryos were successfully transferred to soil.

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Adriano N. Nesi, Gerson R. de L. Fortes, Jono B. da Silva, and Adriana C. de M. Dantas

This work aims to verify the effect of BAP (6-benzyladenine purine) and CPPU (forchlofenuron) on the in vitro shoot proliferation of apple rootstock cultivars M.111 and M.7 under different concentrations. The experiment was carried out in the tissue culture laboratory at Embrapa Temperate Climate in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. As initial explants, microcuttings were used from in vitro culture. The treatments consisted of the combination of two cultivars with cytokinins and six differents concentrations (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 μMol). The explants were inoculated in 250-mL flasks with 40 mL MS medium with agar (7.0 g·L-1), myo-inositol (100.0 g·L-1), NAA (0.005 mg·L-1), and sucrose (40.0 g·L-1). The pH was adjusted to 5.9 before autoclaving. After inoculations the culture was kept for 50 days under 25 ± 2 °C, 16-h photoperiod, and 19 μMol·m-2·s-1 radiation. CPPU performed better than BAP for cultivar M.111 and it had similar response for cultivar M.7 as bud and shoot multiplication and multiplication rate is concerned. The BAP increased the number of shoots with higher length and with no callus formation in the shoot base, contrary to CPPU. The most efficient concentrations were 4.7 and 5.5 μMol for CPPU and BAP, respectively.

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Maurus V. Brown, James N. Moore, and Fens H. Huang

`Saturn', `Mars', and `Reliance' were compared based on their different Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca compositions. Disks (10 mm) from young leaves were placed abaxial side down on a standard media containing NAA or 2,4-D at 0.0, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L with BAP at 0.0, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/L. Each treatment was replicated in 10 culture tubes and incubated at 25 ± 1C under cool-white fluorescent light for 10h photoperiods. Calli were compared by size, color, and occurrence of morphogenesis. NAA generally produced a larger callus by cultivar than 2,4-D. A greater quantity of callus was generally produced with the increase of the V. labrusca component. Callus produced on 2,4-D medium was round, compact and light to dark green in color. However, callus produced on NAA medium was amorphous, friable, and ranged in colors. Rooting occurred on some calli produced on NAA media.

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James A. Bryan and John R. Seiler

Foliar application of the synthetic growth regulator BA was evaluated for increasing the duration and extent of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.] seedling growth. Aqueous solutions of 0, 222, or 444 μm BA (0, 50, or 100 ppm) were sprayed on the shoots of Fraser fir seedlings biweekly from 18 until 38 weeks after planting. Foliar sprays of 444 μm BA increased seedling height 19%, increased shoot weight 57%, reduced root weight 22%, and increased total weight 27%. Apical meristem activity was stimulated and the long periods of dormancy typical of Fraser fir seedlings were avoided. Chemical name used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA).

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Bekir Şan, Adnan Nurhan Yildirim, and Fatma Yildirim

Yildirim, 2009 ), although there are some studies on in vitro germination of whole embryo. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of isolating embryo from cotyledons and the combination of BAP (0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg·L −1 ) with GA 3