Shoot proliferation cultures were established in vitro using flower-stem explants from two different interspecific hybrid plants of Liatris. Explants taken on two dates from field-grown plants were successfully established and axillary shoot growth promoted on a medium consisting of Murashige and Skoog basal salts and vitamins with 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 1.0 μm BA, and 7.0 g·L-1 agar, with a medium pH = 5.7. Initial explant contamination rates were significantly higher among explants collected later in the growing season. Addition of BA (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0 μm) improved shoot formation compared to the control for both plants. Proliferation rates differed between the dates of establishment, the plants, and the BA treatments. Shoots rooted readily in medium without PGRs or with 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 μm K-IBA. Overall rooting was 88%. About 90% of the plants rooted in the presence of 1.0 μm K-IBA were successfully established in the greenhouse. Chemical names used: 6-benzyl adenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).
Martin J. Bukovac, Paolo Sabbatini, Philip G. Schwallier, and Michael Schroeder
fruit growth and perhaps overcome the negative effects of NAA on fruit development. N 6 -Benzyladenine [BA, N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine, bz 6 Ade], a synthetic cytokinin, and zeatin are the most widely used cytokinins in research and commercial
Treatment of Peperomia obtusifolia plants with a single foliar spray of N6-Benzyladenine (BA) at 250, 500, or 1000 mg/liter resulted in compact plants with an increased number of lateral branches.
Fatih Ali Canli, Murat Sahin, Nurettin Temurtas, and Mustafa Pektas
effects of preharvest application of GA 3 , GA 3 + 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and GA 4+7 + BA on fruit size of small-fruited summer pear ( Pyrus communis ) varieties were studied ( Stern et al., 2007 ). While
James M. Garner, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes, and J. Raymond Kessler
A foliar spray of 0, 1250, 2500, or 3750 mg benzyladenine (BA)/liter was applied to 10 hosta cultivars. Response to BA treatment was cultivar dependent, with BA promoting offset formation in half of the cultivars tested. Increase in offsets compared to the control ranged from 116% in `Francee' to 3500% in `Francis Williams' at 30 days after treatment (DAT) and from 150% in `Royal Standard' to 2250% in `Francis Williams' at 60 DAT with 3750 mg BA/liter. Stage of development, as indicated by the number of unfurled leaves on offsets, was also cultivar and BA dependent. All cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/liter had an average of three or more unfurled leaves at 60 DAT, while among control plants, 40% of cultivars averaged less than three unfurled leaves. No phytotoxic symptoms were noted in any cultivar, and growth index was either increased or not affected by BA treatment. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine, BA).
Kuang-Liang Huang and Wen-Shaw Chen
An experiment was conducted to measure the effects of pulse treatments of BA, sucrose, and BA before, after, or with sucrose, on the vase life of cut Eustoma flowers. A BA pulse at 50 mg·L-1 before 4% sucrose promoted the longevity of cut Eustoma flowers better than other treatments. Simultaneously, sucrose, glucose, and mannose concentrations in flowers during vase periods were maintained at higher levels in double pulse treatments than in the single pulses. Ethylene production in flowers 2 days after vase treatment was highest in the BA-treated flowers; intermediate in flowers pulsed with BA before, after, or with sucrose; and lowest in sucrose-treated flowers. Although a BA pulse increased ethylene production over that of controls, it inhibited senescence in cut Eustoma flowers. Respiration in flowers pulse-treated with sucrose or with BA before, after, or with sucrose, was significantly higher than that in controls. Results suggest that the vase life of cut Eustoma flowers is improved by either BA or sucrose in vase solution and especially when BA was pulsed before the sucrose pulse. Chemical name used: N6-benzyladenine (BA).
Peter Semeniuk and R. J. Griesbach
Bud applications of 6-benzylamino purine (BA) suspended in lanolin at concentrations of 1, 5, 25, and 50 mg/ml effectively induced either the initiation of bud growth or the development of lateral branches in nonpinched, nonbranching ‘Ruff and Reddy’ poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild ex. Klotz). No lateral branches developed on nonpinched controls. Application of 25 and 50 mg/ml of BA promoted additional axillary bud activity in untreated axillary buds above treated ones. This loss of apical dominance in upper untreated buds indicates that BA was transported. Bud applications of 150 μg/ml t-cinnamic acid (tCA) alone or in combination with BA had no effect on promoting bud activity.
Douglas D. Archbold and John G. Strang
The effect of BA on ‘Redchief strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) growth and yield was evaluated. During the summer of row establishment (1982), matted row plots were sprayed to drip with BA at 0, 50, 125, or 250 ppm on 1 July, 1 Aug., or 1 Sept. In 1983 and 1984, subplots were treated with BA at 0, 200, 250, or 300 ppm on 15 Sept., 1 Oct., or 15 Oct., or on all three dates at 250 ppm. Treatments applied in 1982 had no effect on crowns/m2, side branches/crown, total yield/plot, or mean fruit weight. However, increasing BA concentration significantly reduced mean crown dry weight. BA applied in Fall 1983 had no effect on total yield/plot though harvest distribution was altered. BA application on 1 Oct. significantly reduced early yields compared to the other dates of application. Although both single and multiple BA application reduced early yields compared to the control, three applications caused the largest reduction. Multiple application in 1984 significantly reduced mean fruit weight on early harvest dates. Visual observation and rating of plots indicated BA did increase flower number, but the extra flowers exhibited poor fruit set and did not significantly increase yield. Chemical names used: N-(phenymethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA).
James M. Garner, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes, and J. Raymond Kessler
A study conducted in 1995 and repeated in 1996 determined the effects of repeated BA applications and subsequent repeated removals on yields of offsets in Hosta Tratt. (Funkia K. Spreng; Niobe Salisb.) stock plants. Two hosta cultivars, `Francee' and `Francis Williams', received zero, one, two, three, or four foliar applications of benzyladenine (BA) at 3000 mg·L-1. Plants receiving multiple applications were retreated at 30-day intervals following offset removal from all plants. A single BA application stimulated offset formation in both cultivars in both years, but repeated applications were necessary for a continued response following offset removal. Total offset yield increased linearly as the number of BA applications increased. At 120 days after the first treatment in 1995, `Francee' plants receiving four applications had produced an average of 22 offsets, and `Francis Williams' plants 18 offsets, whereas control plants produced 9.8 and 0 offsets, respectively. Similar data for 1996 were 31.2 offsets for `Francee' and 22.4 offsets for `Francis Williams,' whereas control plants produced 6.8 and 2.6 offsets, respectively. Offset stage of development, as indicated by leaf number, and growth index generally were not affected by BA treatment. No phytotoxicity was observed, and plant appearance was enhanced due to the outgrowth of BA-stimulated lateral buds. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine, BA).
Timothy E. Elkner and D.C. Coston
The effects of BA alone or in combination with GA4+7 and with either daminozide or a surfactant on growth and lateral development of peach [Prunus persica (L.) cv. Redhaven] were evaluated at 4 stages of terminal growth. BA + GA4+7 at 500 ppm or 1000 ppm daminozide was the most effective treatment for inducing lateral development when applied at terminal growth of 15-20 cm or 31-36 cm. BA + GA4+7 increased both tree height and average internode length for all treatments. BA with either surfactant or daminozide was not effective in inducing lateral shoot formation and caused shorter internodes and retarded tree growth in all treatment combinations except 250 ppm + 1000 ppm daminozide. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA) and (1α,2β,4aα,4bβ,10β)-2,4a,7-trihydroxy-l-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-l,10-dicarboxylic acid 1,4a-lactone (GA4+7).