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James R. Ault

Shoot proliferation cultures were established in vitro using flower-stem explants from two different interspecific hybrid plants of Liatris. Explants taken on two dates from field-grown plants were successfully established and axillary shoot growth promoted on a medium consisting of Murashige and Skoog basal salts and vitamins with 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 1.0 μm BA, and 7.0 g·L-1 agar, with a medium pH = 5.7. Initial explant contamination rates were significantly higher among explants collected later in the growing season. Addition of BA (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0 μm) improved shoot formation compared to the control for both plants. Proliferation rates differed between the dates of establishment, the plants, and the BA treatments. Shoots rooted readily in medium without PGRs or with 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 μm K-IBA. Overall rooting was 88%. About 90% of the plants rooted in the presence of 1.0 μm K-IBA were successfully established in the greenhouse. Chemical names used: 6-benzyl adenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).

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Martin J. Bukovac, Paolo Sabbatini, Philip G. Schwallier and Michael Schroeder

fruit growth and perhaps overcome the negative effects of NAA on fruit development. N 6 -Benzyladenine [BA, N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine, bz 6 Ade], a synthetic cytokinin, and zeatin are the most widely used cytokinins in research and commercial

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Fatih Ali Canli, Murat Sahin, Nurettin Temurtas and Mustafa Pektas

effects of preharvest application of GA 3 , GA 3 + 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and GA 4+7 + BA on fruit size of small-fruited summer pear ( Pyrus communis ) varieties were studied ( Stern et al., 2007 ). While

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James M. Garner, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes and J. Raymond Kessler

A foliar spray of 0, 1250, 2500, or 3750 mg benzyladenine (BA)/liter was applied to 10 hosta cultivars. Response to BA treatment was cultivar dependent, with BA promoting offset formation in half of the cultivars tested. Increase in offsets compared to the control ranged from 116% in `Francee' to 3500% in `Francis Williams' at 30 days after treatment (DAT) and from 150% in `Royal Standard' to 2250% in `Francis Williams' at 60 DAT with 3750 mg BA/liter. Stage of development, as indicated by the number of unfurled leaves on offsets, was also cultivar and BA dependent. All cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/liter had an average of three or more unfurled leaves at 60 DAT, while among control plants, 40% of cultivars averaged less than three unfurled leaves. No phytotoxic symptoms were noted in any cultivar, and growth index was either increased or not affected by BA treatment. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine, BA).

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Kuang-Liang Huang and Wen-Shaw Chen

An experiment was conducted to measure the effects of pulse treatments of BA, sucrose, and BA before, after, or with sucrose, on the vase life of cut Eustoma flowers. A BA pulse at 50 mg·L-1 before 4% sucrose promoted the longevity of cut Eustoma flowers better than other treatments. Simultaneously, sucrose, glucose, and mannose concentrations in flowers during vase periods were maintained at higher levels in double pulse treatments than in the single pulses. Ethylene production in flowers 2 days after vase treatment was highest in the BA-treated flowers; intermediate in flowers pulsed with BA before, after, or with sucrose; and lowest in sucrose-treated flowers. Although a BA pulse increased ethylene production over that of controls, it inhibited senescence in cut Eustoma flowers. Respiration in flowers pulse-treated with sucrose or with BA before, after, or with sucrose, was significantly higher than that in controls. Results suggest that the vase life of cut Eustoma flowers is improved by either BA or sucrose in vase solution and especially when BA was pulsed before the sucrose pulse. Chemical name used: N6-benzyladenine (BA).

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James M. Garner, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes and J. Raymond Kessler

A study conducted in 1995 and repeated in 1996 determined the effects of repeated BA applications and subsequent repeated removals on yields of offsets in Hosta Tratt. (Funkia K. Spreng; Niobe Salisb.) stock plants. Two hosta cultivars, `Francee' and `Francis Williams', received zero, one, two, three, or four foliar applications of benzyladenine (BA) at 3000 mg·L-1. Plants receiving multiple applications were retreated at 30-day intervals following offset removal from all plants. A single BA application stimulated offset formation in both cultivars in both years, but repeated applications were necessary for a continued response following offset removal. Total offset yield increased linearly as the number of BA applications increased. At 120 days after the first treatment in 1995, `Francee' plants receiving four applications had produced an average of 22 offsets, and `Francis Williams' plants 18 offsets, whereas control plants produced 9.8 and 0 offsets, respectively. Similar data for 1996 were 31.2 offsets for `Francee' and 22.4 offsets for `Francis Williams,' whereas control plants produced 6.8 and 2.6 offsets, respectively. Offset stage of development, as indicated by leaf number, and growth index generally were not affected by BA treatment. No phytotoxicity was observed, and plant appearance was enhanced due to the outgrowth of BA-stimulated lateral buds. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine, BA).

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins and Joyce Latimer

, because plants respond in different ways to PGRs depending on species, cultivar, growing conditions, and the PGR used ( Gent and McAvoy, 2000 ). BA, a synthetic cytokinin, is a PGR that increases branching when sprayed on ornamental plants ( Latimer and

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Rongcai Yuan and Duane W. Greene

BA applied at the 10-mm stage at 50 and 100 ppm thinned, increased fruit size, and seed abortion. Net photosynthesis was decreased and dark respiration was increased when temperature following BA application was high (30°C), whereas there was no effect when temperature was lower (20°C). The seed number in abscising fruit was greater in BA-treated fruit than in control fruit. The number of viable seeds in BA-treated fruit was reduced. Tipping the bourse shoot increased fruit set, regardless of BA treatment. BA did not thin fruit with 25 leaves or greater. The translocation of 14C-sorbital from leaves to fruit was promoted by BA application to the fruit, but not when BA was applied to the leaves. The thinning induced by BA will be discussed in relation to available carbohydrate.

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Fahed A. Al-Mana and Tajelsir I.M. Idris

Foliar spray of either BA or GA3 alone or in combinations of the two growth regulators were tested for their effects on Bryophyllum plants. Neither BA nor GA3 alone succeeded in stimulating lateral branching or flowering. GA3 totally inhibited bulbils formation. In a panel evaluating the ornamental quality, plants treated with GA3 at 100 ppm ranked top. The combination of BA and GA3 enhanced growth, branching, flowering and bulbils formation. The combinations of BA and GA3 at 50 ppm each, significantly improved the propagative qualities of the bulbils. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -H purin-6-amine (BA), Giberllic acid (GA3).

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Duane W. Greene

on pears than are generally recommended for use on apple ( Vilardell et al., 2005 ). BA has been reported to thin several pear cultivars including Clara Frijs ( Bertelsen, 2002 ), Bartlett ( Curetti et al., 2011 ; Dussi and Sugar, 2011 ), Packham