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Thomas E. Marler, Ross Miller, and Aubrey Moore

Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae) is a cycad-specific armored scale that invaded Guam in 2003 ( Marler and Muniappan, 2006 ). This pest has combined with several other invasive insects to threaten Cycas

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Thomas E. Marler

Aulacaspis yasumatsui (□) or D. marianarum (○) from 2004 to 2013. Mean ± se . Several 21st century insect invasions have threatened Guam’s Cycas micronesica and removed the horticultural appeal of the cycad species. The cycad leaf miner Erechthias sp

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Thomas E. Marler and Gil N. Cruz

Cycas micronesica was threatened by the 2003–07 invasions of Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi and two other specialist insect pests to the islands of Guam and Rota ( Marler, 2012 ; Marler and Muniappan, 2006 ; Moore et al., 2005 ). This unique

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Thomas E. Marler

-term imidacloprid protection from Aulacaspis yasumatsui herbivory revealing numerous robust leaves. ( B ) Unhealthy tree provided no insecticide protection revealing few small leaves. White bars are 100 cm. Trees with multiple branched stems were selected to

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Thomas E. Marler and Aubrey Moore

C. revoluta cataphyll complex in a natural state. ( D ) Phenotype of the same cataphylls after removal of tomentum. ( E ) Closeup of Aulacaspis yasumatsui infesting the hidden cataphyll surfaces after removal of tomentum. ( F ) Roots of a

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Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol

Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi invaded Guam in 2003 ( Marler and Muniappan, 2006 ). At that time, Cycas micronesica ( Fig. 1A ) was the most dominant tree species in natural forests ( Donnegan et al., 2004 ). Furthermore, this native cycad species

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Tracy Monique Magellan, Chad Husby, Stella Cuestas, and M. Patrick Griffith

, Aulacaspis yasumatsui Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 119 422 424 Cavins, T.J. Whipker, B.E. Fonteno, W.C. Harden, B. McCall, I. Gibson, J.L. 2000 Monitoring and managing pH and EC using the PourThru extraction method. North Carolina State Univ. Hort. Info

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Thomas E. Marler and John H. Lawrence

subsequently killed by Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi infestations. Therefore, Typhoon Paka resulted in high resilience and no mortality of the trees in this damage category, but Typhoon Chaba resulted in low resilience and 100% mortality of the trees in the

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Jack B. Fisher, Anders Lindström, and Thomas E. Marler

scale ( Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi) is among the greatest of threats ( IUCN Cycad Specialist Group, 2006 ). It has thrust natural populations of many species into a vulnerable position and devastated the international horticultural trade built on

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Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol

the armoured scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui J. Trop. Ecol. 28 233 242 Marler, T.E. Lindström, A.J. 2014 Free sugar profile in cycads Front. Plant Sci. 5 526 Marler, T.E. Lindström, A.J. 2015 Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads Commun. Integr. Biol. 8