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Noa K. Lincoln, Theodore Radovich, Kahealani Acosta, Eli Isele and Alyssa Cho

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) cultivation is gaining momentum throughout the tropics due to its high yield and nutritious fruit. One impediment to expanding production of breadfruit is the lack of agronomic research related to production management. We examined foliar nutrient concentrations of different leaf positions and leaf parts to assess within- and between-tree variance to inform an effective sampling protocol. We further validated the sampling protocol on 595 trees at 87 sites that were assessed for yield and productivity. Foliar nutrients differed significantly by categories of productivity. For the first time, breadfruit-specific standards of foliar nutrient concentrations are presented for consideration. In conclusion, we recommend that foliar sampling use petioles harvested from leaves in the third position from the branch tip using sun-exposed leaves in the midcanopy of each tree.

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Diane Ragone

150 accessions of breadfruit [Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg and A. mariannensis Trècul] and interspecific hybrids from 18 Pacific island groups were analyzed for isozyme variation. Six enzyme systems (ACO, ADH, IDH, MDH, ME, PGM) produced well-resolved bands Each accession was scored for presence or absence of bands for each enzyme system. Breadfruit is clonally propagated and numerous diploid and triploid cultivars are grown in the Pacific islands. Diploid cultivars of A. altilis from Melanesia and western Polynesia showed the highest variation. Few diploid cultivars were found in eastern Polynesia. Seedless, triploid cultivars showed identical banding patterns for all enzyme systems. The narrow genetic variation in triploid cultivars indicates that they are the result of repeated vegetative propagation of a naturally occurring triploid. In contrast, these cultivars exhibit great morphological variation due to somatic mutation, maintained through human selection. A. mariannensis and hybrid cultivars showed greater variation and were identifiable by unique banding patterns for ADH and MDH.

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Diane Ragone

150 accessions of breadfruit [Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg and A. mariannensis Trècul] and interspecific hybrids from 18 Pacific island groups were analyzed for isozyme variation. Six enzyme systems (ACO, ADH, IDH, MDH, ME, PGM) produced well-resolved bands Each accession was scored for presence or absence of bands for each enzyme system. Breadfruit is clonally propagated and numerous diploid and triploid cultivars are grown in the Pacific islands. Diploid cultivars of A. altilis from Melanesia and western Polynesia showed the highest variation. Few diploid cultivars were found in eastern Polynesia. Seedless, triploid cultivars showed identical banding patterns for all enzyme systems. The narrow genetic variation in triploid cultivars indicates that they are the result of repeated vegetative propagation of a naturally occurring triploid. In contrast, these cultivars exhibit great morphological variation due to somatic mutation, maintained through human selection. A. mariannensis and hybrid cultivars showed greater variation and were identifiable by unique banding patterns for ADH and MDH.

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Desmond B. Worrell, C. M. Sean Carrington and Donald J. Huber

Growth and development were characterised in two compound tropical fruit, soursop, Annona muricata L., and breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis (Park.) Fosb. The growth curves of both fruit were typically sigmoidal as determined by length, diameter, fresh weight and dry weight measurements. Soursop showed biphasic development with the flower/fruit remaining in an apparent resting state for some 12 weeks post anthesis before entering the second or true phase of growth leading to maturity. For both fruit, size increase extended over a 3 month period. Maturity indices were derived for each fruit and simple post harvest changes in texture, respiration and ethylene evolution investigated. storing either fruit under refrigeration down to 14°C significantly extended storage life though at temperatures below this chilling injury was evident.

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Jeanne Bernardin, Claude Willemot and Clement K. Sankat

The effect of Ca on breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) postharvest storage was investigated. Mature-green breadfruits were hand-harvested in Blanchisseuse, Trinidad, dipped in 0%, 2%, 5%, and 10% CaCl2-2H2O solutions for 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 hours, and stored at 16C for 9 days. Calcium content was shown to increase in both peel and pulp with increasing concentration and length of treatment. The 5% and 10% Ca treatment had a detrimental effect on color and texture as determined by sensory evaluation. The 2% treatment delayed fruit softening, particularly for 3-, 6-, and 12-hour dips. At the end of storage, total soluble solids content was affected little by the treatments, while pectin solubilization was delayed. Breadfruit shelf life was extended from 4 to 9 days with 2% treatments. Peel browning remains the limiting factor for storage.

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Kent D. Kobayashi, Theodore J.K. Radovich and Brooke E. Moreno

( Manihot esculenta ), plantain ( Musa × paradisiaca ), and breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis ). Many of these are considered “minor” crops in the mainland, temperate United States, but are essential to the food security of much of the tropics. The laboratory

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Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel and Anish Malladi

tolerance in wheat Protoplasma 248 313 323 Zhou, Y. Underhill, S.J.R. 2015 Breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis ) gibberellin 2-oxidase genes in stem elongation and abiotic stress response Plant Physiol. Biochem. 98 81 88 Supplemental Table 1. Primer sequences