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Nicolas Tremblay and Léon-Étienne Parent

Celery (Apium graveolens var. Dulce) is a species particularly sensitive to nutritional balance. Seedlings in multicellular trays sometimes present problems that can be traced to nutritional causes. DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) and CND (Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis) are two recent concepts that can be implemented to diagnose nutritional imbalances from tissue analyses of any plant species. A data bank of 215 observations was used to elaborate DRIS and CND norms for celery transplants. The threshold yield for high yielders was set at 1600 g/plant (27% of the population). Both DRIS and CND systems were implemented and a validation process was undertaken. Nutrient deficiencies (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, B and Zn) were induced on celery seedlings in growing chambers. Tissues samples were given a balanced fertilization. The diagnosing methods (DRIS and CND) were compared on the basis of their ability to identify correctly the induced nutrient deficiencies.

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Xiaofeng Yang and Carlos F. Quiros

Celery cultivars (Apium graveolens var. dulce) in North America have a narrow genetic base. Twenty-two celery, one celeriac and one annual cultivar were screened for polymorphic RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers with 28 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Among the total 231 bands obtained, 28 (12%) of the bands were polymorphic among the 24 accessions screened, but only 18 (7.8%) were polymorphic within the 22 celery cultivars. These markers are sufficient to distinguish each of the cultivars used. The average number of marker differences is 6.2 between two celery cultivars, 13.5 between the celeriac and the remaining cultivars, and 16.5 between the annual and the other cultivars. The relationship among the celery cultivars disclosed from this study is basically consistent with that observed using total protein and isozyme markers. RAPD technology provides a new alternative for cultivar identification in celery.

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Sylvie Jenni, Isabelle Gamache, John Christopher Côté, and Katrine A. Stewart

Growers of early stalk celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) often experience financial losses due to bolting (the premature and rapid elongation of the main celery stem) in temperate regions. A method was developed to provide early warning of bolting in field-grown celery, on the basis of two criteria, one visual and one microscopic, for inflorescence development. Bolting could be detected 40 days after transplanting using the visual criterion, and as early as 30 days after transplanting using the microscopic criterion. Early detection of bolting using the visual and microscopic criteria provided celery growers with periods of, respectively, 25 days and up to 35 days to consider harvesting earlier, before the length of the celery stems exceeded commercial standards. This method could be effective in minimizing financial losses due to bolting when coupled with agro-economic studies.

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L. Espinoza, C.A. Sanchez, and T.J. Schueneman

Four field experiments were conducted during two production seasons to evaluate soil-test P fertilizer recommendations for celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) produced on Histosols, which often are linked hydrologically to environmentally sensitive wetlands, and to evaluate band placement as a strategy for improving P fertilizer-use efficiency in celery in such areas. Phosphorus was applied (broadcast or banded) at 0,50, 100,150, and 200 kg P/ha. Broadcast P was surface-applied and disked into the soil ≈ 15 cm deep 1 day before planting. Banded P was applied 5 cm below the soil surface and 5 cm to the side of each celery row. Total above-ground mass, marketable trimmed yield of celery, and yield of the larger grade sizes increased with P rate in all experiments. Band P placement was not a viable strategy for improving P fertilizer-use efficiency for celery. However, our results indicate that previous soil-test-based P fertilizer recommendations for celery were too high for the cultivars grown currently, and improved P fertilizer-use efficiency can be obtained with revised soil-test calibrations.

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C.A. Sanchez, A. Faber, and M. Lockhart

Recent research suggests that celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) produced on Florida Histosols does not respond to rates of K fertilizer as high as previously recommended. The soil-test Na levels of Florida Histosols have been increasing as a result of canal dredging which has exposed saline water from shallow aquifers to mixing with surface water used for irrigation. Sand culture and field experiments were conducted to obtain a better understanding of the effect of Na on the K nutritional requirement of celery. The sand culture experiment included factorial combinations of 0, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of K and 0 and 0.5 mM concentrations of Na. The field experiment was a 13 point fractional factorial with K and Na rates ranging from 0 to 400 kg ha-1. The data indicated that Na partially substituted for the K requirement of celery when K was limiting growth and yield. Interestingly, the data also suggested that optimal celery yields were obtained when some Na was present even where K was not limiting.

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Qasim Ahmed, Yonglin Ren, Robert Emery, James Newman, and Manjree Agarwal

Export celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) from Australia has been affected by a natural infestation of purple scum springtails (Hypogastrura vernalis). These insects live inside the celery head, contaminating fresh celery, but do not cause any visible damage. As a result, purple scum springtail-infested celery has led to rejection for export with an impact on market value for fresh produce. In this study, fumigation with ethyl formate (EF), phosphine (PH3), and their combination on mortality of purple scum springtails in naturally infested celery was evaluated. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 50, 60, and 90 mg·L−1 of EF for 1, 2, and 4 hours; 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mg·L−1 of PH3 for 2, 4, and 6 hours; and 20, 30, and 40 mg·L−1 of EF combined with 1 mg·L−1 of PH3, for 2 and 4 hours at the laboratory temperature 25 °C. Complete control was achieved at 90 mg·L−1 of EF for 2 hours; however, phytotoxicity was observed in celery treated by EF at all concentrations. PH3 at 2.5 mg·L−1 achieved 100% mortality within 6 hours, and no phytotoxicity was evident. Mortality of 100% was achieved also at 30 and 40 mg·L−1 EF combined with 1 mg·L−1 of PH3 for 2 and 4 hours exposure time; however, phytotoxicity occurred with EF alone treatments and with the combination. From these data, we conclude that PH3 alone has potential as a fumigant for the preshipment treatment of celery infested with purple scum springtails.

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Genyi Li and Carlos F. Quiros

DNA samples from 21 cultivars of celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce) were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The most informative adapter combination was EcoRI-TaqI. All cultivars could be distinguished from each other by their unique fingerprints based on 73 markers. The program NTSYS grouped the cultivars in three main clusters according to their origin. The groupings observed agreed, with a few exceptions, with those expected by historical accounts and previous analyses based on biochemical and ramdomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers.

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T.K. Hartz and R.F. Smith

in the two celery ( Apium graveolens var. dulce ) trials. The crop response in the first celery trial was undoubtedly related to the abnormally high rainfall received during that trial (more than 40% above normal). The factors responsible for the

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Eric B. Brennan

produce that is direct marketed to local consumers through farmers markets or community-supported agricultural models ( Adam, 2006 ). Third, my question refers to high-value and high-input vegetables [e.g., lettuce, broccoli, celery ( Apium graveolens var