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Richard L. Hassell and Dale W. Kretchman

Seed from six species of the Apiaceae and six parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) cultivars with three seed lots of each parsley cultivar were tested for the presence of germination inhibiting substances. Aqueous leachate from seed of all six species inhibited germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Leachate from root parsley seeds (P. crispum tuberosum) were least inhibitory, while leachate from celery and celeriac (both Apium graveolens L.) seeds were most inhibitory. Inhibitory concentrations in leachate varied by seed lot within a cultivar. Aqueous leachate of seeds from the primary umbels caused less inhibition of germination than did leachate from tertiary umbels. Washing parsley seeds in aerated water for 3 hours or more removed some of the germination inhibitory substance as indicated by the germination bioassay. An aqueous extract prepared from seedcoat tissue, removed during mechanical scarification, inhibited radish seed germination; inhibition was proportional to the duration of scarification and the amount of seedcoat tissue extracted. Parsley seeds scarified ≤60 minutes germinated at rates comparable to washed seeds, but longer scarification time reduced germination. Washing seeds of Apiaceae prior to commercial drying and cleaning may be a practical solution for removal of inhibitors.

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Michael W. Olszewski, Wallace G. Pill, and Thompson D. Pizzolato

`Moss Curled' parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex. A.W. Hill] schizocarps were osmotically primed in polyethylene glycol at -1.0 MPa for 7 days at 20 °C. The smaller of the two mericarps within a parsley schizocarp had lower germination percentage, but similar rate and synchrony of germination. Osmotic priming increased germination percentage, rate, and synchrony, irrespective of mericarp half. This promotive effect of priming on germination was associated with embryonic advancement as indicated by a doubling of radicle and cotyledon volumes, without changes in lengths of these organs. Periclinal divisions of the lateral expansion meristem, distinct in primed radicles but indistinct in nonprimed radicles, led to radial alignment of the cortical cells and a doubling of cortical volume and thereby increased radicle volume. Each embryonic cotyledon of primed mericarps had three distinct procambial bundles that differentiated along most of the cotyledon length, while nonprimed cotyledons had from zero to three that differentiated only a short way into the cotyledon. Priming increased coyledonary procambium length by 5-fold and volume by 11-fold. Increased embryonic growth due to priming was associated with greater endosperm depletion adjacent to the embryo. The schizocarps frequently separated or partially separated into component mericarps during priming, indicating a weakening of pericarp tissue along the commissural suture and possibly elsewhere.

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Michael Olszewski, Wallace Pill, Thompson D. Pizzolato, and John Pesek

Germination studies indicated that increasing priming duration (-1.0 MPa at 20 °C for 7, 14, or 21 days) increased `Moss Curled' parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill] germination rate quadratically and seed moisture content linearly. A histological and anatomical study was conducted to identify and/or quantify principle mericarp organ or tissue volume changes influenced by priming duration. Embryo volume increased as priming duration increased from 7 to 21 days (0.014 to 0.034 mm3), and this was due more to radicle (0.007 to 0.022 mm3) than to cotyledon (0.006 to 0.011 mm3) growth. Concomitant with increased embryo volume was increased volume of the depleted layer (space formation, surrounding the embryo), from 0.038 after 7 days to 0.071 mm3 after 21 days, and increased hydrolysis of central endosperm (a thick-walled endosperm type). In nonprimed mericarps, central endosperm cells constituted 97% of the endosperm volume. The remaining 3% was comprised of 1% depleted layer and 2% distal endosperm (small, thin-walled, and irregularly shaped endosperm cells). During 7 or 21 days of priming, ≈10% or 40%, respectively, of central endosperm cells were hydrolyzed centrifugally around the embryo with a corresponding decrease in volume of central endosperm with thick cell walls. In addition, distal endosperm cells adjacent to the depleted layer, containing reserve materials, were digested of contents following 21 days priming, and sometimes, following 7 days priming. A long priming duration resulted in degradation of pericarp tissues, as indicated visually and by a decline in pericarp volume. We hypothesize that priming duration of parsley primarily influences radicle growth and centrifugal digestion and utilization of central and distal endosperm, resulting in a larger depleted layer required for embryo volume increases. Secondary events influenced by priming duration include cotyledon growth and degradation of pericarp tissues.

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Linda M. Falzari, Robert C. Menary, and Valerie A. Dragar

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is grown commercially in Tasmania for the production of a steam-distilled essential oil, which is high in trans-anethole. Often, only the generative canopy is harvested since this contains the bulk of the oil and further this oil is higher in anethole than oil from other parts of the plant. Regardless of whether the whole crop is forage harvested or the generative canopy alone is removed using a combine-harvester, the most efficient oil production occurs when the greatest proportion of the canopy is generative, giving maximum oil yield from a minimum of fresh weight to be processed. A trial was conducted to examine the relationship between stand density and the various yield components of fennel in order to predict the likely effect on yield of increasing stem density as the short term perennial crop matures. As for most crops, planting density and biomass yield are closely related and the optimum planting density was predicted using a mathematical model. The results suggest that an initial stand density of 10 to 12 plants/m2, in a square layout, would produce the greatest yield of essential oil per unit area by maximising the production of the generative canopy. This density also maximises the yield of oil relative to the weight of material to be distilled.

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Linda M. Falzari, Robert C. Menary, and Valerie A. Dragar

Fruit set is a key component of essential oil yield from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under Tasmanian conditions. Fruit set in commercial crops is often low, possibly due to incomplete pollination. Fennel flowers are strongly protandrous and a series of flowers must be produced to ensure pollination. The hypothesis tested was that decreasing stand density increases the number of lateral branches, thereby increasing the number of higher order umbels and thus increasing the overlap between the periods of pollen production and stigma receptivity. A field trial was used to examine the number of umbels of each order produced under stand densities of 4, 12, 25, 50 and 100 plants/m2. Stand density influenced the ratio of pollen producing to pollen receptive umbels and stand densities of 50 and 100 plants/m2 showed a distinct imbalance between pollen production and stigma receptivity. The data collected supported the hypothesis and it is probable that, in commercial crops, fruit set is being reduced by a lack of synchrony between pollen production and stigma receptivity. The highest stand density tested reduced total oil production. We therefore recommend the inclusion of low stand-density strips within standard-density commercial crops.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Santosh Shiwakoti, Tess Astatkie, Ivan Salamon, Daniela Grul'ová, Silvia Mudrencekova, and Vicki Schlegel

Cumin ( C. cyminum L.) is one of the important aromatic plants belonging to Apiaceae family. It has an ancient history of use as medicinal and spice plant since the Roman times ( Stojanov, 1972 ). Cumin seed was used for the treatment of toothache

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Brent Tisserat and Amy Stuff

The effects of aqueous solutions applied as foliar spray and drench applications of glycerol were tested on the ‘Chantenay’ carrot (Daucus carota L.) family Apiaceae, corn (Zea mays L.) family Poaceae, and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) family Lamiaceae under greenhouse conditions. Foliar sprays and drenches were administered to carrots at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, or 50 ml·L−1. Fresh weights, dry weights, and taproot diameter from carrot seedlings sprayed with a solution containing 5 mL·L−1 (50 mm) glycerol increased 105.6%, 158.4%, and 53.8%, respectively, when compared with untreated carrots. Foliar sprays were administered to corn at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 ml·L−1 and spearmint at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10 mL·L−1. Growth responses increased in corn and spearmint by using certain glycerol concentrations. Fresh weights, dry weights, and shoot length from corn seedlings sprayed with a solution containing 0.5 mL·L−1 (5 mm) glycerol increased 83.5%, 154.6%, and 90.9%, respectively, when compared with untreated corn. Fresh weights, dry weights, and shoot length from mint plants sprayed with a solution containing 5 mL·L−1 (50 mm) glycerol increased 46.6%, 68.7%, and 102.5%, respectively, when compared with untreated plants. Glycerol applications can stimulate growth responses in diverse plant species.

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Nirmal Joshee*, Bipul K. Biswas, and Anand K. Yadav

Centella asiatica L. (Apiaceae family), also called `Indian Pennywort,' is a prostrate, faintly aromatic, and stoloniferous perennial herb with long petiolated leaves. In the Ayurvedic medicine, it is reputed as a nervine tonic along with antibacterial, antifeedant, antileprotic and wound healing properties. Centella contains glycosides, indocentelloside, brahmoside, and asiaticoside. Its leaves are rich in carotenoids and vitamins B and C. In vitro culture techniques which offer a viable tool for mass propagation of plants have recently become increasingly popular for conservation of rare, endangered and threatened medicinal plants germplasm. Centella tissue culture has been reported to experience high incidences of microbial contamination which drastically reduces survival of explants. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to develop an efficient micropropagation technique for Centella asiatica to reduce explant contamination and rapidly disseminate superior clones for research and production. Here we present induction and further development of somatic embryos, using Centella stolons as explants. Somatic embryos were induced in response to 2,4-D shock on MS medium. Initially, somatic embryos appeared as highly nodular callus and eventually developed into somatic embryos that exhibited globular, heart shaped and cotyledonary stages. After auxin shock, cultures were regularly transferred to MS basal medium where somatic embryos completed various developmental stages and then germinated to give rise to new plantlets. In this presentation, we will demonstrate complete protocols for the successful sterilization of Centella explants prepared from plants that had abundance of fungal and bacterial contamination.

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Myrtle P. Shock, Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, Nancy L. Shaw, Lamont D. Saunders, and Ram K. Sampangi

medicinal plants International Journal of Pharmacognosy 35 77 83 Meilleur, B.A. Hunn, E.S. Cox, R.L. 1990 Lomatium dissectum (Apiaceae): Multi-purpose plant of the Pacific Northwest Journal of Ethnobiology 10 1 20 Moerman, D. 2012 Native American

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Lynn Brandenberger, William McGlynn, Lynda Wells, Bruce Bostian, and Mark Payton

Carrot is a cool-season vegetable belonging to the Apiaceae . It probably originated in the Middle East, with the first carrots grown for consumption in Afghanistan ( Peirce, 1987 ). Carrots are a substantial source of dietary fiber and vitamin A