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Hongmei Ma, Margaret Pooler and Robert Griesbach

Anthocyanin biosynthesis was first characterized in Zea mays and was demonstrated to be predominantly regulated at the transcription level by two families of regulatory factors, R-like MYC (R, B, Lc, Sn) and R2R3-MYB (C1/Pl) proteins ( Brevitz

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Suparna K. Whale and Zora Singh

-growing areas. Poor and erratic color development often causes serious economic losses to the growers. Apple skin color results from the blending of chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin pigments ( Lancaster, 1992 ), with anthocyanins being primarily

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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle and David S. Gardner

Anthocyanins have become sought-after natural products due to potential for medicinal and industrial uses. These metabolites have a number of health-promoting properties; increasing demand for nutraceuticals, fruits, and vegetables containing

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Peter J. Mes, Peter Boches, James R. Myers and Robert Durst

purplish brown” color. The pigments in most fruit and vegetables with purple color are anthocyanins, but to our knowledge, none of the so-called purple or black tomatoes contain substantial quantities of anthocyanins. The cultivated tomato does express

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

Capsicum annuum (pepper) is cultivated as both an ornamental and a vegetable. Anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves, flowers, and fruit imparts violet to black color and enhances both ornamental and culinary appeal. Anthocyanins are the end

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Rosanna Freyre, Chad Uzdevenes, Liwei Gu and Kenneth H. Quesenberry

carotenoid pigments and are inferred to serve to attract pollinators ( Davies, 2004 ). Flavonoids are the most common flower color pigment, and the predominant flavonoid pigments are the anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are composed of an anthocyanidin and sugar

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Henry D. Schreiber and Nicholas A. Wade

the sepals is an anthocyanin, delphinidin- o -glucoside ( Takeda et al., 1985 ), whose flavylium cation provides the characteristic pink-red color to hydrangea sepals ( Moncada et al., 2003 ). Sepals turn blue because this anthocyanin forms a complex

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John R. Stommel and Judith M. Dumm

Eggplant fruit color is influenced by the presence or absence of anthocyanins and chlorophylls and the concentration as well as distribution of these compounds. Anthocyanins are located in fruit epidermal cells and chlorophylls are found in

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Hongmei Ma, Margaret Pooler and Robert Griesbach

of anthocyanins, the prominent pigments in higher plants. The biochemistry and genetics of the anthocyanin-generating flavonoid biosynthetic pathway have been extensively studied ( Davies, 2000 ; Griesbach, 2005 ; Irani et al., 2003 ; Koes et al

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Patrick J. Conner and Dan MacLean

products during storage. The primary pigments in grape berries are the anthocyanins, which impart brilliant red and purple colors to grape berries. The common anthocyanidins found in grapes in order of decreasing stability are malvidin, peonidin