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Christopher J. Currey, Vincent C. Metz, Nicholas J. Flax, Alex G. Litvin, and Brian E. Whipker

sativum ), and parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ) growth ( Appling, 2012 ). Maintaining the substrate moisture content of containerized sweet basil, dill ( Anethum graveolens ), parsley, and sage ( Salvia officinalis ) at 40% to 50% less (by volume) than

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Paige L. Herring, Abbey C. Noah, and Helen T. Kraus

Sphagnum peat is a finite resource that is often used in the horticultural industry as a component in many substrates, especially for greenhouse production of transplants. Because peatlands are being depleted by vast amounts of mining, the horticultural industry is exploring alternative resources to use in substrates. Swine lagoon sludge (SLS) is an attractive option as it may provide nutrients needed to support plant growth, as well as using an agricultural waste product to address the peat shortage. A compost was developed using an in-vessel compost reactor to compost SLS with peanut hulls [15:85 (by volume) SLS:peanut hull] to produce a swine lagoon compost (SLC). A greenhouse transplant study was conducted with three species: basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Dark Opal’), chives (Allium schoenoprasum), and dill (Anethum graveolens ‘Hera’) grown in three substrates: SLC, a commercially available organic potting substrate with a nutrient charge (OM), and a commercial peat-based potting substrate with a 2-week nutrient charge (PEAT). The average height for basil, chives, and dill was significantly greater at transplant harvest when produced in the SLC substrate compared with the OM and PEAT. Airspace was greatest for SLC and lowest for OM and PEAT. Although root growth was not measured in this study, more prolific root growth throughout the plug was observed with SLC compared with OM and PEAT possibly because of the greater airspace in SLC. Substrate solution pH did not change substantially over time, whereas electrical conductivity (EC) decreased from 0.24 to 0.14 mS·cm−1. Both substrate pH and EC were within acceptable ranges for transplant production. SLC provided the physical and chemical requirements for herb transplant production without any additional fertilizers or amendments.

Open access

Alexander G. Litvin, Christopher J. Currey, and Lester A. Wilson

Culinary herbs are used globally as ingredients in cuisine and as therapeutic components in medications [ Cook and Samman, 1996 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2011 ]. Herbs such as basil ( Ocimum basilicum ), dill ( Anethum graveolens

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Mohammed Sarwar and Saleh A. Al-Namlah

Saudi Arabia is known for arid character and its total unsuitability for any agricultural exploitation. However; it is- now proving otherwise with the application of modern agrotechnology resulting in large scale production of many crops successfully. Considering the international growing demand of essential oils, need of agrocommunities for new crops, advantages of local warm climate and availability of generous government funding system, essential oil production offers immense potential in Saudi Arabia. This paper intends to describe the prospects of raising Pelargonium graveolens, Mentha arvensis, Artemesia pallens, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Ocimum basilicum, Eucalyptus citriodora, Rosemarinus officinalis, Coriandrum sativum, Anethum graveolens, Jasminum grandiflorum and Pogostemon patchouli successfully at various ecosystems and to establish new agroindustries based on essential oils around the Kingdom.

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Jerry T. Walker

Twenty herb species were exposed to root-knot nematode under greenhouse conditions. The root systems were examined for root gall development and nematode reproduction as an indication of host suitability. The herbs evaluated were balm (Melissa officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativium L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavender (Lavandula augustifolia Mill.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha ×piperita L.), rocket-salad (Erurca vesicaria L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.). Peppermint, oregano, and marjoram consistently were free of root galls after exposure to initial nematode populations of two or 15 eggs/cm3 of soil medium and were considered resistant. All other herb species developed root galls with accompanying egg masses, classifying them as susceptible or hypersusceptible to root-knot nematode. The highest initial nematode egg density (15 eggs/cm3) significantly decreased dry weights of 14 species. The dry weights of other species were unaffected at these infestation densities after 32- to 42-day exposure.

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J.R. Smart, D.J. Makus, and R.J. Coleman

Field studies were conducted to determine the efficiency and crop safety of trifluralin [2,6-dinitro-N, N-dipropyl-4(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine] in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), and dandelion greens (Taraxacum officinale Weber) when applied preplant-incorporated at 0.56 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha. Visual injury evaluations, crop fresh and dry weight at maturity, and leaf area were used to determine adverse effects of trifluralin on each crop when compared to an untreated control. Dandelion greens had a 47% and 49% reduction in leaf area when treated with trifluralin at 0.56 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha when compared to the untreated weed-free dandelion treatment. Coriander and dill showed no visual crop phytotoxicity and no adverse effects on crop growth, fresh and dry weight yield, or leaf area when treated with trifluralin. Trifluralin, when used in combination with early season mechanical cultivation, can provide selective weed control of many of the most common winter annual weeds in south Texas while exhibiting a high level of crop tolerance for coriander and dill.

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Ekaterina A. Jeliazkova, Valtcho D. Jeliazkov, Lyle E. Craker, and Baoshan Xing

Phytoremediation has been suggested as a solution to heavy metal—polluted soils, but the choices of suitable plant species for phytoremediation have been limited. Medicinal and aromatic plants appear to be excellent selections for these plantings, since these plants are grown for economically valuable secondary products (essential oils), not for food or feed. Preliminary research indicates that heavy metals are not accumulated in essential oils, permitting the oil to be used commercially. Productivity of some, but not all aromatic plants was reduced, however, by the heavy metals. The objective of our experiment was to distinguish the mechanism of heavy metal tolerance of plants using germinating seeds of medicinal and aromatic plant species. Seeds from medicinal and aromatic plants were germinated in solutions with selected levels of heavy metals (cadmium at 6 and 10 (μg·L-1; copper at 60 and 150 μg·L-1; lead at 100 and 500 μg·L-1; zinc at 400 and 800 μg·L-1) and in distilled water. Tests on Anethum graveolens L., Carum carvi L., Cuminum cyminum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pimpinella anisum L., Ocimum basilicum L., and the hyperaccumulator species Brassica juncea L. and Alyssum bertolonii established that different plant species reacted in different ways to the heavy metals. For example, cadmium did not decrease seed germination of Alyssum, O. basilicum, and B. juncea compared with germination in water but did decrease germination of C. cyminum. Lead did not affect germination of A. bertolonii and B. juncea as compared with water but did negatively affect germination of P. anisum, F. vulgare, and C. cyminum. Except for B. juncea, F. vulgare, and C. cyminum, copper had a negative effect on germination. Zinc decreased germination in all tested species except B. juncea.

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Jules Janick, Marie Christine Daunay, and Harry Paris

; ( B ) marjoram ( Origanum marjorana ) folio 33v; ( C ) dill ( Anethum graveolens ) folio 32r; ( D ) saffron ( Crocus sativus ) folio 40v. Marjoram. This is a spice originating in northern Africa and southwestern Asia ( Simon et al., 1984 ). Two

Open access

Bo Meyering, Adam Hoeffner, and Ute Albrecht

regulation in several other Apiaceous species are well understood and were shown to be regulated mainly through photoperiod and vernalization. Dill ( Anethum graveolens ), an LD plant, can be induced to flower once exposed to a single 11-hour daylength cycle

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Santosh Shiwakoti, Tess Astatkie, Ivan Salamon, Daniela Grul'ová, Silvia Mudrencekova, and Vicki Schlegel

and aroma. Recent reports on the effect of HDT on crushed dill ( Anethum graveolens L.) ( Sintim et al., 2015 ), coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) ( Zheljazkov et al., 2014 ), and fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill) ( Burkhardt et al., 2015