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Janet C. Cole, Robert O. Brown, and Mark E. Payton

Ancymidol and uniconazole are plant growth regulators that slow plant growth by inhibiting sterol and gibberellin biosynthesis ( Henry, 1985 ; Shive and Sisler, 1976 ). These growth regulators have been shown to restrict height of several

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Iftikhar Ahmad, Brian E. Whipker, and John M. Dole

. ( Pinto et al., 2006 ), Mussaenda L. ( Cramer and Bridgen, 1998 ), and lavender ( Lavandula stoechas L.) ( Papageorgiou et al., 2002 ). Paclobutrazol and ancymidol are closely related nitrogen-containing heterocentric compounds that act on the same

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Christopher J. Currey, Kellie J. Walters, and Kenneth G. McCabe

plants of each cultivar were provided with 2-fl oz aliquots of solutions containing deionized water or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg·L −1 ancymidol (Abide; Fine Americas, Walnut Creek, CA), flurprimidol (Topflor; SePRO, Carmel, IN), paclobutrazol (Piccolo; Fine

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Amy L. Burton, Svoboda V. Pennisi, and Marc W. van Iersel

appropriate concentration, the growth control and related enhanced plant quality may be extended into the postharvest period. In the current study, drench applications of α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol) or α

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Victor Gaba, Chassia Elman, Abed A. Watad, and Dennis J. Gray

Cotyledonary explants of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Galia) regenerate primordia and buds in vitro induced by benzyladenine. The anti-gibberellin ancymidol can stimulate the rate of regeneration on melon explants in the presence of benzyladenine. Concentrations of benzyladenine plus ancymidol that are individually ineffective can act synergistically to stimulate regeneration. Gibberellic acid reduces the rate of regeneration induced by benzyladenine or benzyladenine plus ancymidol. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (benzyladenine); alpha-cyclopropyl-alpha-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol).

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James C. Sellmer, Craig R. Adkins, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker

Plant growth retardant (PGR) substrate drenches (in mg a.i per pot.) of ancymidol at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4; paclobutrazol at 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16; and uniconazole at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 (28,350 mg = 1.0 oz) were applied to pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana). Control of height growth during greenhouse forcing and the residual effects on plant growth in the landscape were evaluated. During greenhouse forcing, plant height exhibited a quadratic dose response to paclobutrazol and uniconazole, while ancymidol treated plants exhibited a linear response to increasing dose. All rates of uniconazole resulted in plant heights which were 56% to 75% shorter than the nontreated control, whereas paclobutrazol and ancymidol treatments resulted in 6% to 64% and 5% to 29% shorter plants, respectively. Severe height retardation was evident with {XgtequalX}2 mg uniconazole. When the plants were transplanted and grown in the landscape (24 weeks after the PGR application), all plants treated with ancymidol, paclobutrazol, and {XltequalX}0.5 mg uniconazole exhibited heights similar to the nontreated control, suggesting no residual effects of the PGR for these treatments. Only plants treated with uniconazole at {XgtequalX}1 mg remained shorter than the nontreated control in the landscape. These results demonstrate that plant growth regulators can be effectively and economically applied in the greenhouse production of pampas grass.

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Jeff B. Million, James E. Barrett, Terril A. Nell, and David G. Clark

Dendranthema×grandiflorum (Ramat.) were grown in either a peat-based or pine bark—based medium and drenched with growth retardants at a range of concentrations to generate dose : response curves. The effect of ancymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole on stem elongation was less in the pine bark—based than in the peat-based medium. Generally, the concentrations required to achieve the same response were 3- to 4-fold as high in the pine bark—based medium as in the peat-based medium. However, chlormequat was slightly more active in the pine bark—based medium than in the peat-based medium. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α—(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); (±)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-di methyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (E)-(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pent -l-en-3-ol (uniconazole); 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat).

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Sonja L. Maki, Maria Delgado, and Jeffrey W. Adelberg

The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, ancymidol, was used during micropropagation of Hosta `Blue Vision'. Shoot growth and bud division was monitored every 2 weeks over an 8-week period in media containing 1 μm benzyladenine (BA) and various levels of ancymidol (0, 0.1, 0.32, 1 and 3.2 μm). Ancymidol prolonged bud division from 2 to 6 weeks and increased the total number of buds produced. Shoots grown in medium containing ancymidol had greater fresh weight, shorter-broader leaves and less dry weight than those grown without ancymidol. Reduced dry weight of buds grown in the presence of ancymidol was correlated to the depletion of sugars in the medium. A bioassay using `Saturn' tall rice revealed that ancymidol was active for the entire 8-week culture period.

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Richard J. McAvoy and Paige Kishbaugh-Schmidt

Easter lilies, Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv Nellie White, were grown in a commercial pine bark-based medium (25% by vol.), amended with 0.5 g Acrylamide Acrylate Gel (AAG) per 1.6 liter pot. Lilies were grown in media drenched with ancymidol, at 0, 0.25, 0.375 or 0.5mg a.i.pot-1 following shoot emergence, or grown in media containing ancymidol impregnated AAG at 0, 0.25, 0.375 or 0.5mg a.i.pot-1. AAG applied ancymidol treatments resulted in a significant linear decrease in both lily stem and internode length as the rate of ancymidol increased. Drench applied ancymidol had no affect on stem or internode length. Stem and internode lengths of drench treated lilies were not significantly shorter than lilies not exposed to ancymidol. Bud length, leaf and bud number, and days to anthesis were not affected (P≤0.05) by any treatment. Ancymidol activity in the top, middle and bottom strata of medium filled containers, and in the leachate from these containers, was measured using a lettuce hypocotyl length bioassay. Ancymidol activity was uniformly distributed throughout the bark medium when applied in AAG. With this treatment, 10-15% of the ancymidol activity was detected in the leachate. When ancymidol was applied as a drench, over 95% of the activity was detected in the top two strata, with 70% in the upper most stratum and the rest in the leachate.

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Brian E. Whipker and P. Allen Hammer

Plant growth retardant (PGR) media drench treatments (in mg a.i./pot) of ancymidol at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0; paclobutrazol at 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0; uniconazole at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 were applied to tuberous-rooted dahlias to compare their effectiveness as a chemical height control. All paclobutrazol, ancymidol, and uniconazole rates applied significantly reduced `Red Pigmy' plant height by 21% or greater compared to the nontreated control. Excessively short plants resulted from uniconazole and ancymidol drench rates ≥1.0 mg. `Red Pigmy', a less vigorous cultivar, were acceptable as potted-plants with paclobutrazol rates of 2.0 to 4.0 mg, 0.25 to 0.5 mg of uniconazole, or 0.5 mg of ancymidol. All paclobutrazol, ancymidol, and uniconazole rates significantly reduced `Golden Emblem' plant height by ≥11% when compared to the nontreated plants. Excessively short plants resulted from paclobutrazol drench rates of 16.0 mg, uniconazole rates of 2.0 mg and for ancymidol drenches ≥4.0 mg. `Golden Emblem', the more vigorous cultivar, were acceptable as potted-plants with paclobutrazol rates of 4.0 to 8.0 mg, 0.5 to 1.0 mg of uniconazole, or 2.0 mg of ancymidol.