Over the past few years, studies have been conducted exploring the variability in iron nutritional quality from a tropical vegetable, Amaranthus. In order to confirm previous iron bioavailability data, A. cruentus, A. hypochondriacus and A. tricolor lines were grown at the MSU Horticulture Research Center and then analyzed for total and in vitro bioavailable iron. Leaves were harvested 39 days after transplanting, washed, lyophilized and ground. Total iron levels were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy and bioavailable iron estimates derived using an in vitro assay simulating gastrointestinal digestion. Among the lines tested, total iron concentrations ranged from 145 to 506 ppm. Bioavailable iron ranged from 44 to 70 ppm. Both the total and bioavailable iron measured were highest in A. tricolor, similar to results of previous years. Total iron values were lower for all of the lines than detected previously, but the range of bioavailable iron was similar to earlier work. Bioavailable iron estimated using the in vitro procedure does not appear to be greatly influenced by fluctuations in total iron content. Amaranth could provide between 44 and 70 mg Fe/100 gm fresh weight, equal to 20-35% of the daily Fe requirement for women, and 40-70% for men. Future experiments will utilize an animal bioassay to verify differences detected in bioavailable iron.
Anusuya Rangarajan and John F. Kelly
Fekadu Fufa Dinssa, Peter Hanson, Dolores R. Ledesma, Ruth Minja, Omary Mbwambo, Mansuet Severine Tilya and Tsvetelina Stoilova
Amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) is an important leafy vegetable in Africa where most farmers grow unimproved landraces. Information about amaranth genetic diversity and its adaptation to different environments will help breeders develop improved commercial varieties that meet market requirements. The objectives of this study were to investigate the performances of amaranth entries for vegetable yield across locations and seasons, assess the relative contributions of genetic vs. environmental sources of variation to yield, and cluster locations into mega-environments (MEs) to suggest future test sites. Twenty-six diverse entries were evaluated for vegetable yields in replicated trials at five locations in wet-cool and hot-dry seasons in Tanzania. Season explained the highest proportion (52.1%) of the total sum of squares followed by entries (24.9%) and locations (23.0%). Mean yield across the hot-dry season trials (27.7 t·ha−1) was 47.3% greater than the mean yield across wet-cool season trials (18.8 t·ha−1). Differences among entries in vegetable yield were higher in the hot-dry season than in the wet-cool season, indicating that gain from selection is likely to be greater in the hot-dry season. Most entries performed well in either wet-cool or hot-dry season but a few entries were adapted to both seasons. Two MEs were identified, one characterized by lower altitudes, higher temperatures, and less fertile soils, and a second ME associated with higher altitudes, lower temperatures, and more fertile soils. Each ME may serve as an initial selection site for their respective target environment. Targeting a specific season may give a better chance of finding high-yielding varieties.
David R. Byrnes, Fekadu F. Dinssa, Stephen C. Weller and James E. Simon
Vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), a leafy vegetable crop consumed around the world, is actively promoted as a source of essential micronutrients to at-risk populations. Such promotion makes micronutrient content essential to the underlying value of this crop. However, the extent to which micronutrient content varies by effect of genotype is not clear, leaving breeders uninformed on how to prioritize micronutrient contents as the criteria for selection among other performance parameters. A total of 32 entries across seven Amaranthus species were field-grown and analyzed for Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn, yield, height, and canopy spread comprising 20 entries at New Jersey in 2013; 12 entries at Arusha, Tanzania, in 2014; and 20 entries at New Jersey in 2015. The genotype effect was significant in all trials for Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn, total yield, marketable yield, height, and canopy spread. The Fe content range was above and below the breeding target of 4.2 mg/100 g Fe in all environments except for New Jersey 2015, where all entries were found to accumulate in levels below the target. All entries in each of the environments contained levels of Ca and Mg above breeding targets, 300 mg/100 g Ca and 90 mg/100 g Mg. None of the entries in any environment met the Zn breeding target of 4.5 mg/100 g Zn.
Dennis C. Odero, Jose V. Fernandez and Nikol Havranek
lambsquarters control in other crops on mineral soils with low organic matter content ( Fennimore et al., 2001 ; Richardson et al., 2004 ). However, S -metolachlor at 1.07 kg·ha −1 has been reported to provide complete control of Amaranthus species in soils
A. Lane Rayburn, Mosbah M. Kushad and Wanisari Wannarat
Amaranthus species Crop Sci. 45 2557 2562 Robinson, R.W. Decker-Walters, D.S. 1997 Cucurbits. Crop production science in horticulture series Cab International New York Tatum, T.C. Nunez, L
Sarah R. Schweig and Rebecca N. Brown
flowering time in Amaranthus species J. Genet. 64 2–3 85 100 Makinde, E.A. 2015 Effects of fertilizer source on growth and cumulative yield of Amaranthus Intl. J. Veg. Sci. 21 2 167 176 Makus, D.J. 1984 Evaluation of amaranth as a potential greens crop in
Georgina D. Arthur, Adeyemi O. Aremu, Manoj G. Kulkarni and Johannes Van Staden
casts on plant growth Biol. Fertil. Soils 5 288 294 Uma, B. Malathi, M. 2009 Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth and yield of Amaranthus species Res. J. Agr. Biol. Sci. 5 1054 1060 Wang, D. Shi, Q. Wang, X. Wei, M. Hu, J. Liu, J. Yang
Sarah R. Sikkema, Nader Soltani, Peter H. Sikkema and Darren E. Robinson
to have activity on a broad spectrum of weeds, including Digitaria species, Panicum species, Setaria species, barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crus-galli ), velvetleaf ( Abutilon theophrasti ), Amaranthus species, common ragweed ( Ambrosia
Dennis C. Odero and Alan L. Wright
. Predominant weed species especially common lambsquarters and spiny amaranth had prolific growth and development. Amaranthus species and common lambsquarters have been reported to result in up to 100% yield loss in several crops following season
Michael J. Adler and Carlene A. Chase
residues of all three cover crops inhibited germination and growth of smooth amaranth. This sensitivity of Amaranthus species to aqueous extracts of leguminous cover crops is supported by other studies. Velvetbean leaf extract inhibited germination of A