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Karen L. Panter, Timmothy M. Gergeni, Casey P. Seals and Andrea R. Garfinkel

. 73 90 95 Fernández-Martinez, J.M. Perez-Vich, B. Velasco, L. 2009 Sunflower, p. 155–232. In: J. Vollman and I. Rajcan (eds.). Oil crops, Vol. 4. Springer Sci. Business Media, New York, NY Folia, 2015 Garlic chive Allium tuberosum . Plant database

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K.H.S. Peiris, J.L. Mallon and S.J. Kays

Respiratory rate was measured and vital heat calculated for 18 specialty vegetables {arugula or roquette [Eruca sativa Miller], banana flower bud [Musa ×paradisiaca L. var. paradisiaca], bitter gourd [Momordica charantia L.], cassava [Manihot esculanta Crantz], chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], Chinese chive [Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel], Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Henschel], drumstick [Moringa oleifera Lam.], giant or elephant garlic [Allium scorodoprasm L.], guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.], hyacinth bean [Lablab purpurus (L.) Sweet.], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L.], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban], methi [Trigonella foenum-graecum L.], salsify [Tragopogon porrifolius L.], tindora [Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt], tomatillo [Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem.], and tumeric [Curcuma longa L.]} at 0, 5, 10, and 20 °C. Respiration rates increased more or less exponentially with increasing storage temperature in all the vegetables tested, CO2 varying from 28 to 302 mg·kg−1·h−1 at 20 °C for tumeric and drumstick, respectively. At 0 °C, the same products had the lowest and highest respiration rates of the products measured (i.e., CO2 at 4.5 and 28 mg·kg-1·h−1, respectively). Among the vegetables tested, above-ground plant parts such as leaves, fruit, and flowers generally had higher respiration rates than subterrancan storage organs such as roots, corms, and tubers. Vital heat produced ranged from 49 J·kg-1·h-1 for tumeric at 0 °C to 3272 J·kg-1·h-1 for drumstick at 20 °C.

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Naohiro Kubota and Kazuyoshi Kawazu

We previously found that volatile substances in Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) and rakkyo (A. chinense) as well as garlic (A. sativum) stimulated budbreak in vines. But the active substances stimulating budbreak in Chinese chive and rakkyo have not yet been identified.

The volatile sulfur—containing substances in fresh Chinese chive and rakkyo were identified by GC—MASS. The main volatile substances in Chinese chive and rakkyo were allyl and methyl mercaptans, and dimethyl disulfide, respectively.

Cuttings witn a single bud obtained from `Kyoho' vines in dormancy were exposed to vapors of different concentrations of the three compounds for 12 or 24 hr in a desiccator, and they were kept at 25C, mounted on styrofoam plate floated in water. Diallyl disulfide, a main component in garlic, was also tested for comparison. Irrespective of concentrations and exposure periods of sulfide compounds, sprouting was greatly accelerated with diallyl disulfide. In mercaptan homologues, allyl mercaptan accelerated sprouting more effectively than in methyl mercaptan. A solution of 75% dimethyl disulfide accelerated sprouting on exposure for 12 hr, while inhibited budbreak for 24 hr.

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Eric B. Brennan

Many important herbs [e.g., mint (Mentha sp.), thyme (Thymus sp.)], underused and nutritious vegetables [e.g., purslane (Portulaca oleracea), amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor)], and important biological control plants [e.g., sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima)] have small seeds (≤ 1.5-mm long) that are difficult to plant with raw (i.e., nonpelleted) seed using existing seeders. A novel tool known as the slide hammer (SH) seeder was developed for the precise seeding of raw seeds of small-seeded plants. The SH seeder is a jab-type planter made primarily from electrical conduit tubing and other materials that are inexpensive and readily available in a hardware store or on the Internet. The interchangeable seed hopper is made from a plastic snap cap vial that has one or more holes of varying diameter depending on the desired seeding rate and seed size. Seed forms a “bridge” above the hole in the vial until they are dislodged from the force of the SH that discharges seeds to fall to the soil. Detailed plans are provided for how to make and use the SH seeder. The fabrication time is 2 to 4 hours with a material cost of ≈$32. I determined the seed vial hole specifications for the precise seeding of a variety of small-seeded plants, including chives (Allium schoenoprasum), chinese chives (Allium tuberosum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), grain amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), sweet alyssum, purslane, creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), and spearmint (Mentha spicata) that ranged in size from ≈200 to 11,000 seeds per gram. The diameter of the hole that was suitable for discharging the seed from the vial was always larger than the average seed length, and the ratio of hole diameter to seed length ranged from 1.07 to 1.62. Seeding rate uniformity evaluations were conducted for these species using vials with one vs. two holes and showed that the seeding rate was higher by an average of 58% to 173% from a vial with two holes compared with one hole. For most plant species evaluated, the SH seeder was able to dispense as few as one to three seeds consistently. Seed discharge increased somewhat with increasing SH weight for all species evaluated. The SH seeder can be useful for interplanting sweet alyssum as an insectary plant for aphid (Aphidoidea) control between existing plants of organic lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and for intercropping cultivars of purslane as a novel vegetable in between transplanted organic broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica group) plants. This novel seeding tool has many potential uses for direct, hand seeding in vegetable and herb production systems and in weed research trials. The seeder could be automated and made with a variety of alternative materials.

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Yukihiro Fujime

and development are late compared with other alliums. Table 3. Comparison of growth and development in allium crops. Chinese chive, nira in Japanese ( Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng.). Chinese chive is a perennial plant and has vigorous branches

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Atsu Yamasaki, Akira Kitajima, Norihiro Ohara, Mitsutoshi Tanaka and Kojiro Hasegawa

saibaigizyutsu Kazitsu Nihon 50 101 (in Japanese). Kojima, A. Hinata, K. Noda, S. 1991 An improvement of squash method for the cytological study of female meiosis in Allium tuberosum Liliaceae. Chromosome Info

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Na Liu, Baoli Zhou, Xin Zhao, Bo Lu, Yixiu Li and Jing Hao

solanacearum infection of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) in a tomato-Chinese chive ( Allium tuberosum ) intercropping system J. Chem. Ecol. 25 2409 2417 Yu, J.Q. Matsai, Y. 1996 Effects of root exudates of cucumber and

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Neel Kamal and Christopher S. Cramer

schoenoprasum , Allium tuberosum , and Allium vavilovii were reported by Cramer et al. (2011) and on Allium sativum (garlic) by Bag et al. (2009b) . Onion thrips ( T. tabaci, Lindeman) are the main vector to transmit IYSV by acquiring the virus at their