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J.M. Goatley Jr. and R.E. Schmidt

Research was conducted to evaluate crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] control, incidental dollar spot (incited by Lanzia and Moellerodiscus spp.) suppression, and turfgrass quality following sequential, low-level postemergence applications of DSMA to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Farwell). DSMA was applied at 22 mg·m-2 at 7-day intervals for 15 consecutive weeks (DSMA-W) from May through Aug. 1986 and 1987 and for 10 consecutive weeks from June through Aug. 1988. DSMA also was applied in three split applications of 110 mg·m-2 every 10 days (DSMA-S) in June and July of each year. DCPA was applied in a single, preemergence application in May as a comparative standard for crabgrass control. Percent crabgrass in either DSMA-treated plot was 20% by 11 Sept., an infestation that was unacceptable for high-quality turf. Percent crabgrass infestation was 6% at all rating dates in 1987 or 1988 for DSMA-W and 11% at all dates in 1987 or 1988 for DSMA-S. DCPA significantly reduced percent crabgrass as compared to the nontreated control at all rating dates, but the percent crabgrass ratings tended to be higher than those for either DSMA treatment by the final rating dates of each year. The DSMA treatments significantly reduced dollar spot incidence in each year. Turfgrass discoloration was observed following the DSMA-S treatment in July 1987 as compared to the control, but the turf quality recovered by August. Turfgrass quality was higher for DSMA treatments than for either DCPA or the nontreated control due to season-long crabgrass control and disease suppression. Chemical names used: disodium methanearsonate (DSMA), dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA).

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, and Joe E. Toler

Creeping bentgrass [ Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris (Huds.)], a C 3 plant, is widely used as a putting green turfgrass in cooler climate areas and the transition zone ( McCarty, 2005 ). However, as a result of seasonal temperature variation

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Xiaozhong Liu and Bingru Huang

Understanding physiological factors that may confer heat tolerance would facilitate breeding for improvement of summer turf quality. The objective of this study was to investigate whether carbohydrate availability contributes to changes in turf quality and root mortality during heat stress in two creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw. (syn. A. palustris Huds.)] cultivars, `L-93' and `Penncross', that contrast in heat tolerance. Grasses were grown at 14-hour days and 11-hour nights of 22/16 °C (control) and 35/25 °C (heat stress) for 56 days in growth chambers. Turf quality decreased while root mortality increased under heat-stress conditions for both cultivars, but to a greater extent for `Penncross' than `L-93'. The concentrations of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC), fructans, starch, glucose, and sucrose in shoots (leaves and stems) and roots decreased at 35/25 °C. The reduction in carbohydrate concentrations of shoots was more pronounced than that of roots. Shoot glucose and sucrose concentrations were more sensitive to heat stress than other carbohydrates. `L-93' maintained significantly higher carbohydrate concentrations, especially glucose and sucrose, than `Penncross' at 35/25 °C. Results suggest that high carbohydrate availability, particularly glucose and sucrose, during heat stress was an important physiological trait associated with heat-stress tolerance in creeping bentgrass.

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Maxim J. Schlossberg, Keith J. Karnok, and Gil Landry Jr.

Subjection of intensively managed creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.). Farw., (syn. Agrostis palustris Huds.)] to supraoptimal soil temperatures is deleterious to root viability and longevity. The ability to estimate viable root length would enable creeping bentgrass managers to more accurately schedule certain management practices. The purpose of this rhizotron study was to develop a model, based on an accumulated degree-day (ADD) method, capable of estimating viable root length density of established `Crenshaw' and `L93' creeping bentgrass maintained under putting green conditions. Viable root length density observations were made biweekly and soil temperature data collected April through September 1997, and January through August 1998 and 1999. Relative viable root length density (RVRLD) is defined as the measured viable root length density divided by the maximum density attained that spring. In both years, maximum annual viable root length density for all plots was reached, on average, by 138 days from the beginning of the year (18 May). Cultivar and year effects were nonsignificant (P = 0.67 and 0.20, respectively). Degree-day heat units were calculated using an array of base temperatures by integral and arithmetical methods. Although the two accumulative methods proved suitable, the model regressing arithmetical degree-day accumulations against the bentgrass RVRLD provided a better fit to the data set. Use of the 10 °C base temperature in the arithmetical ADD calculations provided the following model; RVRLD = 0.98 - [1.30 × 10-4 (ADD)], accounting for 83.8% of the experimental variability (P < 0.0001). As several abiotic/edaphic factors have been shown to significantly influence root growth and viability, development of a widely usable model would include additional factors.

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Patrick E. McCullough, Haibo Liu, and Lambert B. McCarty

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are often applied in combinations to reduce turf clippings, enhance turf quality, and suppress Poa annua L.; however, effects of PGR combinations on putting green ball roll distances have not been reported. Two field experiments were conducted on an `L-93' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds.) putting green in Clemson, S.C., to investigate effects of four PGRs with and without a subsequent application of ethephon at 3.8 kg·ha–1 a.i. 6 days after initial treatments. The PGRs initially applied included ethephon at 3.8 kg·ha–1 a.i., flurprimidol at 0.28 kg·ha–1 a.i., paclobutrazol at 0.28 kg·ha–1 a.i., and trinexapac-ethyl at 0.05 kg·ha–1 a.i.. Ball roll distances were enhanced 3% to 6% (4 to 8 cm) by exclusive flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl treatments. The additional ethephon application reduced ball distances 2% to 9% (2 to 11 cm). Paclobutrazol and trinexapac-ethyl treated turf receiving the additional ethephon application had longer or similar ball roll distances to non-PGR treated turf. The additional ethephon treatment reduced turf quality to unacceptable levels 1 and 2 weeks after applications. However, bentgrass treated previously with trinexapac-ethyl and paclobutrazol had 8 to 16% higher visual quality following the additional ethephon treatment relative to non-PGR treated turf receiving the subsequent ethephon application. Overall, ethephon may have deleterious effects on monostand creeping bentgrass putting green quality and ball roll distances; however, applying ethephon with GA inhibitors could mitigate these adverse effects. Chemical names used: [4-(cyclopropyl-[α]-hydroxymethylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); {α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy) phenyl] 5-pyrimidine-methanol} (flurprimidol); (+/-)–(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1, 1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4,-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] (ethephon).

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Zhaolong Wang, John Pote, and Bingru Huang

This study was designed to examine whether shoot injury induced by high root-zone temperature is associated with changes in shoot detoxifying metabolism and to determine the level and duration of high root-zone temperatures that would induce physiological changes in two cultivars of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds) differing in heat tolerance. Plants of `Penn A-4' (heat tolerant) and `Putter' (heat susceptible) were grown in sand and exposed to root-zone temperatures of 20 (control), 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 31, and 35 °C in water baths while air temperature was maintained at 20 °C in a growth chamber. Turf quality, leaf cytokinin content, and antioxidant enzyme activities declined at increased soil temperatures and the duration of treatment for both cultivars. A decline in turf quality occurred following 40 days of exposure to 35 °C for `Penn A-4' and 26 days of exposure to 31 °C for `Putter'. The root-zone temperature causing the decline of isopentenyl adenosine and zeatin cytokinins was 25 °C at 37 d for `Putter' and 27 °C at 47 days for `Penn A-4'. The temperature causing the decline of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities was 25 °C and 27 °C at 33 days for `Putter' and 27 °C and 31 °C at 43 days for Penn A-4, respectively. Malondialdehyde content increased at 27 °C for `Putter' and 31 °C for `Penn A-4' at 43 days of treatment. The decline in cytokinin content and antioxidant enzyme activity occurred at a lower soil temperature and earlier during the treatment than the decline in turf quality, possibly contributing to turf quality decline. The root-zone temperatures causing the decline in turf quality, cytokinin content, and oxidative damage were higher in the heat-tolerant cultivar than heat-susceptible cultivar.

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Qingzhang Xu, Bingru Huang, and Zhaolong Wang

Heat injury in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds) has been associated with decreases in carbohydrate availability. Extending light duration may increase carbohydrate availability and thus improve growth of creeping bentgrass under heat stress. The objective of this study was to investigate whether turf performance and carbohydrate status could be improved by extending daily light duration for creeping bentgrass exposed to supraoptimal temperature conditions. `Penncross' plants were initially grown in growth chambers set at a day/night temperature of 20/15 °C and 14-hour photoperiod and then exposed to a day/night temperature of 33/28 °C (heat stress) and three different light durations: 14 (control), 18, and 22 hours (extended light duration) for 30 days. Turf quality and tiller density decreased with the duration of heat stress, as compared to the initial level at 20 °C, regardless of the light duration. However, both parameters increased with extended light duration from 14 to 18 or 22 hours. Extended light duration, particularly to 22 hours, also improved canopy net photosynthetic rate from -1.26 to 0.39 μmol·m-2·s-1 and daily total amount of carbon assimilation from -6.4 to 31.0 mmol·m-2·d-1, but reduced daily total amount of carbon loss or consumption to 50% through dark respiration compared to 14 hours treatment by the end of experiment. In addition, extending light duration from 14 to 22 hours increased water-soluble carbohydrate content in leaves both at the end of light duration and the dark period. These results demonstrated that extending light duration improved turf performance of creeping bentgrass under heat stress, as manifested by the increased tiller density and turf quality. This could be related to the increased carbohydrate production and accumulation. Supplemental lighting could be used to improve performance if creeping bentgrass is suffering from heat stress.

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, Joe Toler, and Steven H. Long

Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris Huds.) is desirable as a putting green turfgrass in the transition zone as a result of year-round green color, ball roll, and playability. However, management challenges exist for bentgrass greens, including winter temperature fluctuations. Frosts often cause cancellations or delays of tee time resulting in lost revenue. In response to this winter golf course management issue, a research project was initiated at Clemson University from 1 Dec. 2005 and 2006 to 1 Aug. 2006 and 2007 on a ‘L93’ creeping bentgrass putting green to determine the impacts of foot traffic or mower traffic and time of traffic application on bentgrass winter performance. Treatments consisted of no traffic (control), foot traffic, and walk-behind mower traffic (rolling) at 0700 and 0900 hr when canopy temperatures were at or below 0 °C. Foot traffic included ≈75 steps within each plot using size 10 SP-4 Saddle Nike golf shoes (soft-spiked sole) administered by a researcher weighing ≈75 kg. A Toro Greensmaster 800 walk-behind greens mower weighing 92 kg with a 45.7-cm roller was used for rolling traffic. Data collected included canopy and soil temperatures (7.6 cm depth), visual turfgrass quality (TQ), clipping yield (g·m−2), shoot chlorophyll concentration (mg·g−1), root total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) (mg·g−1), soil bulk density (g·cm−3), and water infiltration rates (cm·h−1). Time and type of traffic significantly influenced bentgrass winter performance. On all TQ rating dates, 0700 hr rolling traffic decreased TQ by ≈1.1 units compared with foot traffic at 0700 hr. In December, regardless of traffic application time, rolling traffic reduced bentgrass shoot growth ≈17%. However, in February, chlorophyll, soil bulk density, and water infiltration differences were not detected. By the end of March, all treatments had acceptable TQ. Root TNC was unaffected in May, whereas shoot chlorophyll concentrations were unaffected in May and August. This study indicates bentgrass damage resulting from winter traffic is limited to winter and early spring months and full recovery should be expected by summer.

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A. Douglas Brede

. Literature Cited Bigelow, C.A. Chalmers, D.R. 1995 Interseeding establishment of creeping bentgrass [ Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris ‘Southshore’ (Huds.) Faw.] into an annual bluegrass ( Poa annua L.) turfgrass system 1