A modification of the chilling and heating model for pecan budbreak was used to describe the interactive effects of chilling and heating on the date of first entry of the pecan nut casebearer (PNC; Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig) into the pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] fruit. Selected data from unpublished and published sources were used to construct the model. Base temperatures of 9.4 and 13.9C for chilling and heating, respectively, provided the best fit (r 2 = 0.981) for the model used to predict PNC activity. An inverse relationship [1/Y = 0.0037259(1 – 0.1e–0.0028069x – 574.9638969)] was found between chilling (1 Dec. through February) and heating (beginning 1 Feb.) degree-days accumulated until entry of first-generation PNC into the pecan fruit. This model can be used to predict entry of first-generation PNC larvae into fruit over a range of geographic and climatic conditions and pecan genotypes. Model validation using 1994 data from two sites in Texas suggests precision is sufficient to use the model as a guide in managing nut casebearer control.
Leonardo Lombardini, Marvin K. Harris, and D. Michael Glenn
Trials were conducted during summer months of 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the effects of a kaolin-based particle film (Surround WP, Engelhard Corp.) on gas exchange, nut quality, casebearer density and population of natural enemies (insects and arachnids) on pecan (Carya illinoinensis `Pawnee') trees. Film application was repeated for seven (2002) or nine (2003) times during the growing season. In both years, treated trees showed lower leaf temperature (up to 4 °C) than untreated trees. During the warmest hours of the day, kaolin-treated leaves were generally 0 to 2 °C cooler than air temperatures, compared to 4 to 6 °C for control leaves. Leaf net assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and stem water potential were not affected by film application. Nut size and quality did not differ between the two treatments. Shellout (percentage of nut consisting of kernel) was not affected by treatment and averaged about 55%. Crop grade distribution (fancy, choice, standard, and damaged) was also similar among treatments in both years. In both years, numbers of green lacewing eggs was less on kaolin-treated compared to control leaves. The density of common natural enemies (lady beetles, green lacewings, spiders) of pecan pests did not differ between treatments. The average number of developing nuts damaged by pecan nut casebearer (Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig) was significantly higher in kaolin-sprayed trees (24.2%) compared to control trees sprayed with conventional insecticides (9.3%). The results suggest that kaolin-based particle film may not be a viable alternative to conventional methods of controlling pecan pests. Also, under adequate irrigation conditions, carbon assimilation, water relations and productivity may not benefit from kaolin particle film application.
Bruce W. Wood, Leonardo Lombardini, and Richard J. Heerema
nuxvorella Neunzig) and other arthropod pest populations were minimal such that they did not influence fruit-drop. No fungicide was used because foliar and fruit diseases are not a concern for pecan in the arid southwestern United States. Pest management was