). Furthermore, nutrient concentrations of lamina and petiole were determined to provide information for proper sampling techniques. Materials and Methods Field characteristics. Leaves were collected from Acer × freemanii Celebration® trees that
Mary Ann Rose and Barbara Biernacka
Seasonal patterns of N, P, and K accumulation and remobilization in Freeman maple (Acer× freemanii E. Murr. `Jeffersred') were studied to guide future improvements in fertilization efficiency. Leaves, stems, and roots of container-grown trees were harvested over a 12-month period (June to June) in each of two experiments. Plants were fertilized from June to October with three rates of soluble fertilizer (50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 N). Fertilizer rate had linear and quadratic effects on dry weight and nutrient contents, but did not affect seasonal accumulation patterns. Whole-plant nutrient contents and dry weights increased until mid-October, prior to leaf abscission. The largest fractions of nutrients and dry weight were allocated to leaves until early September. Between September and October, the most rapid accumulation of N, P, and dry weight occurred in root tissue. Highest nitrogen recovery efficiency occurred in late summer (Expt. 2) or early fall (Expt. 1). There was no statistically significant evidence for N, P, or K resorption in the fall, but evidence of N (not of P or K) remobilization in the spring was very strong. Whole plant dry weight doubled between April and June, while ≈50% of the N stored in woody tissues was translocated to new shoots.
James A. Zwack, William R. Graves, and Alden M. Townsend
Freeman maples (Ace×freemanii E. Murray) are marketed as stress-resistant alternatives to red maples (Acer rubrum L.). Our objective was to compare two cultivars of Freeman maple [`Jeffersred' (Autumn Blaze®) and `Indian Summer'] and five red maples [`Franksred' (Red Sunset®), `Autumn Flame', `PNI 0268' (October Glory®), `Fairview Flame', and unnamed selection 59904] for effects of flooding and water deficit on plant growth, biomass partitioning, stomatal conductance, and leaf osmotic potential. Plants grown from rooted cuttings in containers were subjected to three consecutive cycles during which root-zone water content decreased to 0.12, 0.08, and 0.02 m3·m–3, respectively. Additional plants were flooded for 75 days, while plants in a control treatment were irrigated frequently. Stomatal conductance immediately before imposing drought and after three drought cycles did not differ among genotypes and averaged 220 and 26 mmol·s–1·m–2, respectively. Differences in stomatal conductance after recovery from the first drought cycle and at the end of the second drought cycle did not vary with species. Drought reduced estimated leaf osmotic potential similarly for all genotypes; means for drought-stressed and control plants were –1.92 and –1.16 MPa, respectively. Freeman maples had a higher mean root: shoot weight ratio and a lower leaf surface area: root dryweight ratio than did red maples. Across genotypes, stomatal conductance of flooded plants initially increased by ≈20% and then fell to and remained below 50 mmol·s–1·m–2. Stomatal conductance of `Indian Summer' decreased to ≈20 mmol·s–1·m–2 after 8 days of flooding, indicating that this cultivar may be particularly sensitive to root-zone saturation.
Hongyi Zhang, William R. Graves, and Alden M. Townsend
We determined transpiration rate, survival, and rooting of unmisted, softwood cuttings of `Autumn Flame' red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and `Indian Summer' Freeman maple (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray). Effects of perlite at 24, 30, and 33 °C were assessed to determine whether responses of cuttings would be consistent with cultivar differences in resistance to root-zone heat previously shown with whole plants. During 7 d, cutting fresh mass increased by ≈20% at all temperatures for `Autumn Flame' red maple, but fresh mass of `Indian Summer' Freeman maple decreased by 17% and 21% at 30 and 33 °C, respectively. The percentage of cuttings of `Indian Summer' that were alive decreased over time and with increasing temperature. Transpiration rate decreased during the first half of the treatment period and then increased to ≈1.1 and 0.3 mmol·m-2·s-1 for `Autumn Flame' and `Indian Summer', respectively. Mean rooting percentages over temperatures for `Autumn Flame' and `Indian Summer' were 69 % and 16%, respectively. Mean rooting percentages at 24, 30, and 33 °C over both cultivars were 74%, 29%, and 25%, respectively. Over temperatures, mean root count per cutting was 41 and seven, and mean root dry mass per cutting was 4.9 and 0.4 mg, for `Autumn Flame' and `Indian Summer', respectively. Use of subirrigation without mist to root stem cuttings was more successful for `Autumn Flame' than for `Indian Summer'. Temperature × cultivar interactions for cutting fresh mass and the percentage of cuttings remaining alive during treatment were consistent with previous evidence that whole plants of `Autumn Flame' are more heat resistant than plants of `Indian Summer'. Mass and survival of stem cuttings during propagation in heated rooting medium may serve as tools for screening for whole-plant heat resistance among maple genotypes.
Steve McNamara, Kathy Zuzek, Nancy Rose, Harold Pellett, and Stan C. Hokanson
Mary Ann Rose, Mark Rose, and Hao Wang
Crabapple [Malus ×zumi (Rehd.) `Calocarpa'] and maple (Acer ×freemanii E. Murray `Jeffersred') trees were grown in containers from 22 June to 3 Oct. with three fertilizer concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 N) and two levels of moisture tension in the medium [low setpoint (moist) = 5 kPa and high setpoint (dry) = 18 kPa]. Whole-plant growth was enhanced more by minimizing water stress than by increasing fertilizer concentration. Shoot length and whole-plant dry weight were greater (>29% for crabapple and >90% for maple) in low tension treatments (low water stress) but were unaffected by fertilizer concentration. Moisture tension also had a dominant effect on dry-weight allocation to leaves, stems, and roots. In contrast, foliar nutrient concentrations increased with fertilizer concentration but were affected to a lesser degree by moisture tension. Seasonal patterns in biomass allocation were little affected by treatments; the largest proportions of leaf and root biomass accumulated during summer and fall, respectively.
Petra Sternberg and Daniel K. Struve
In nursery production, increased branching is desirable, especially when growing stock that will be marketed at smaller sizes. Typically, branching is increased by pruning, which reduces growth potential. As an alternative to mechanical pruning, a chemical branching agent, Cyclanilide, has been evaluated for its ability to increase branching in container-grown whip production systems. Cyclanilide sprays of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 were applied to elongating shoots of Acer ×freemanii `Jeffsred', Cercis canadensis, Diospyros virginiana, Eucommia ulmoides, Malus ×`Prairie Fire', Malus ×`Harvest Gold', and Quercus rubra whips. Branching was increased in all taxa except Eucommia at concentrations >100 mg·L-1, without significantly reducing plant dry weight. For Diospyros, branching was increased when combined with pruning before Cyclanilide application.
James A. Zwack, William R. Graves, and Alden M. Townsend
Freeman maples (Acer × freemanii E. Murray) are marketed as stress-resistant alternatives to red maples (Acer rubrum L.), but few data from direct comparisons of these species are available. As a first step in comparing the stress resistance of red maple and Freeman maple, responses to drought were studied in Acer × freemanii `Autumn Fantasy', `Celebration', and `Marmo'. Plants grown from rooted cuttings were treated by withholding irrigation through four drought cycles of increasing severity that were separated by irrigation to container capacity. Drought reduced shoot dry mass, root dry mass, and height growth by 64%, 43%, and 79%, respectively, over all cultivars. Predawn leaf water potential was reduced by 1.16 MPa over all cultivars, and stomatal conductance data indicated water use was more conservative over all root-zone moisture contents after repeated cycles of drought. Specific mass of drought-stressed leaves increased by 25% for `Autumn Fantasy', and microscopy to determine leaf thickness and cellular anatomy is ongoing. `Autumn Fantasy' also had the lowest ratio of leaf surface area to xylem diameter, and `Autumn Fantasy' and `Celebration' had higher ratios of root to shoot mass than `Marmo'. Pressure-volume curve analysis revealed osmotic potential of drought-stressed plants at full turgor was 0.24 MPa more negative than controls, and droughted plants had a greater apoplastic water percentage than controls. Although osmotic adjustment during drought was similar among cultivars, differences in specific mass of leaves and in ratios of transpiring and conducting tissues suggest cultivars of Freeman maple vary in resistance to drought in the landscape.
William L. Bauerle, William W. Inman, and Jerry B. Dudley
Quantitative differences in leaf abscisic acid (ABAL) among four cultivars of red (Acer rubrum L.) and one Freeman maple (Acer × freemanii E. Murray) were investigated. This study tested the hypothesis that ABAL concentration can be used to compare the effects of water stress on the gas exchange response of five different maple cultivars, including four red maple genotypes, `Summer Red', `October Glory', `Autumn Flame', and `Franksred' (Red Sunset), as well as one hybridized Freeman maple genotype, `Jeffersred' (Autumn Blaze). Cloned genotypes of red and Freeman maple were subjected to two treatments: 1) irrigated daily to container capacity or 2) irrigation withheld for one drought and recovery cycle. Leaf abscisic acid concentration, gas exchange, and whole-tree sap flow measurements were conducted under both conditions. Over the course of the drought stress and recovery phase, net photosynthesis (Anet), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) declined as ABAL and instantaneous water use efficiency (A/gs) increased. This study found that ABAL tracked gs and that stomatal responsiveness to substrate moisture deficit is likely mediated by ABA accumulation in leaf tissue. This research demonstrates a leaf-level physiological response to substrate volumetric water content that appears to depend on ABAL concentration. In addition, the evidence in this study indicates that ABAL may be used as a potential surrogate for the gs response to substrate water stress and could become part of a cultivar drought tolerance selection strategy for red and Freeman maple.
Jeff L. Sibley, John M. Ruter, and D. Joseph Eakes
The objective of this study was to determine differences in the bulk anthocyanin content of bark tissue of container-grown red maple (Acer rubrum L. and Acer ×freemanii E. Murray) at two Georgia locations with different environmental conditions. Rooted cuttings and tissue-cultured plantlets of eight cultivars were grown in either Blairsville or Tifton, Ga. [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Hardiness Zones 6b and 8a; American Horticultural Society (AHS) Heat Zones 5 and 8, respectively], from June 1995 until Dec. 1996. Bark tissue from twigs of trees grown in Blairsville was visually redder and contained more total anthocyanin than did that of trees grown in Tifton. Levels of total anthocyanins were higher (P = 0.0007) at Blairsville (0.087 mg·g-1, N = 48) than at Tifton (0.068 mg·g-1, N = 47). At both locations the levels were highest in `Landsburg' (`Firedance'™), followed by `Franksred' (`Red Sunset'™) and `October Glory'. This is the first report to quantify anthocyanin differences in bark tissue of container-grown trees. Cooler nights in Blairsville might have contributed to increased coloration by reducing respiratory losses, thus leaving more carbohydrates available for pigment production.