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Warren E. Shafer, Gregory Clarke, Robert Fritts Jr., Ricardo Menendez, and Derek Woolard

97 WORKSHOP 14 Preharvest Apple Abscission and AVG

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Ross E. Byers

97 WORKSHOP 14 Preharvest Apple Abscission and AVG

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Xingbin Xie, Todd Einhorn, and Yan Wang

AVG and 1-MCP are registered for commercial pre- or postharvest applications to reduce or prevent ethylene-dependent responses such as preharvest drop, ripening, and senescence of apples ( Malus ×domestica ), pears, and other crops. AVG decreases

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Rongcai Yuan and Jianguo Li

, color, and cro p value by as much as 20% while maintaining fruit quality ( Byers and Eno, 2002 ). Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis are two compounds that

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Rongcai Yuan and David H. Carbaugh

cherries ( Bukovac et al., 1969 ), whereas AVG, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, reduced fruit ethylene production and preharvest fruit drop and delayed fruit ripening in apples ( Autio and Bramlage, 1982 ; Bangerth, 1978 ; Byers et al., 2005

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Bruce W. Wood

treating fruit with ethylene can trigger fruit drop ( Kays et al., 1975 ; Wood, 1983 ). Additionally, AVG {Aminoethoxyvinylglycine [S]-trans-2-Amino-4-(2-aminoethoxy)-3-butenoic acid hydrochloride, a naturally occurring plant growth regulator produced by

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Hong Zhu, Eric P. Beers, and Rongcai Yuan

aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) inhibits fruit ethylene production and expression of MdACS1 , MdACS5A , and MdACO1 and delays fruit ripening and preharvest fruit abscission in apples ( Li and Yuan, 2008 ; Schupp and Greene, 2004 ; Yuan and Carbaugh, 2007 ; Yuan and

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C.R. Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, A. Green, and S.J. McArtney

aminoethoxyvinlyglycine (AVG; Retain; Valent BioSciences, Libertyville, IL) to delay drop. Holding fruit on the tree beyond the normal harvest date may also increase crop value due to an increase in fruit size (yield) and improvement in red color development. Byers and

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Smiljana Goreta, Daniel I. Leskovar, and John L. Jifon

biosynthesis such as aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) may thus mitigate the ethylene-related effects of stresses ( Abeles et al., 1992 ). Islam et al. (2003) found that application of AVG at the root zone reduced transpiration under drought stress and postponed

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James R. Schupp and Duane W. Greene

To compare the effects of growth regulators on preharvest fruit drop and fruit maturity, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) was applied to `McIntosh' apple trees at 75, 150, or 225 mg·L-1, at 8, 4, or 2 weeks before harvest (WBH). These treatments were compared to NAA, daminozide, and to an untreated control. All AVG treatments and timings except 75 mg·L-1 applied 8 WBH delayed preharvest drop and fruit maturity. AVG applied at 225 mg·L-1was more effective in delaying drop and development of maturity than other rates when applied 8 or 2 WBH, but at 4 WBH, 150 mg·L-1 gave equivalent results to 225 mg·L-1. AVG at 150 mg·L-1 was superior to NAA or daminozide as a stop-drop agent. No concentration, or time of application of AVG influenced fruit size at harvest. AVG reduced internal ethylene concentration (IEC) in `McIntosh' apples linearly with increasing AVG concentration. There was a linear relationship between time of AVG application (8, 4, or 2 WBH) and IEC in the fruit after harvest, and the time required for harvested fruit to enter the ethylene climacteric. Development of red color was delayed by AVG. This was attributed to a delay in ripening as determined by a slower increase in IEC and starch hydrolysis. In general, earlier application of AVG resulted in reduced effectiveness of lowering IEC following harvest. Chemical names used: aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide).