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Margrethe Serek and Arne Skytt Andersen

Miniature rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. Victory Parade) plants were treated with AOA, BA, or STS before simulated shipment and display in an interior environment. Although AOA-treated plants lasted slightly longer than nontreated plants, their postproduction quality, evaluated as floral longevity, bud drying, and bud abscission, was not as satisfactory as that of STS- or BA-treated plants. In this ethylene-sensitive cultivar, BA treatment was almost as satisfactory as STS treatment. Flowers that opened in the greenhouse before shipping lasted longer than those that opened in the interior environment room. STS and BA treatments increased the longevity of both flower types. However, these treatments did not eliminate the difference between flowers that opened before or after transport simulation. Chemical names used: aminooxyacetic acid (AOA); benzyladenine (BA); silver thiosulfate (STS).

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Diana L. Dostal, Nancy Howard Agnew, Richard J. Gladon, and Jack L. Weigle

Exposure to exogenous ethylene (C2H4) caused corolla abscission of New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens × hawkeri `Sunfire'). Abscission varied with time of exposure and C2H4 concentration. Ethylene at ≥ 1 μl·liter-1 and exposure times of 4 or more hours caused 80% to 100% corolla abscission. Simulated shipping of untreated control plants caused ≈ 65% corolla abscission. Plants pretreated with silver thiosulfate (STS) and (aminooxy)acetic acid (AOA) and subsequently exposed to simulated shipping were not different from one another, and both treatments reduced corolla abscission to ≈ 20% when applied at 1.0 mm. Plants pretreated with STS and exposed to `exogenous C2H4 showed 0% abscission, whereas plants pretreated with AOA showed no reduction in abscission when compared with control plants.

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Titus M. Kyalo and H. Brent Pemberton

Rooted liners of Rosa cvs. Meijikatar and Meirutral were potted into 11 cm pots and placed into growth chambers. One chamber provided 14 hours of light with 30C/21C (day/night) air temperature (HTLD) and another chamber provided 8 hours of light with 21C/17C (day/night) air temperature (LTSD). PPF was 725 μmoles m-2 s-1 in both chambers. When plants were established, they were pinched and forced to flower. Simulated shipping for 4 days at 16C in darkness resulted in a shorter shelf-life when placed in an interior environment at 21C with a continuous PPF of 30 μmoles m-2 s-1 and compared to non-shipped plants. In addition, LTSD grown plants exhibited a shorter shelf-life than HTLD grown plants. When Meirutral plants were sprayed to runoff 24 hours prior to shipping, 2 mmolar (aminooxy)acetic acid (AOA) increased the shelf-life to the same length as the non-shipped plants and 2 mmolar silver thiosulphate (STS) increased the shelf-life to longer than the non-shipped plants. However, AOA did not increase shelf-life over that of shipped plants for Meijikatar whereas STS increased the shelf-life to that of the non-shipped plants.

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Robert L. Geneve, Wesley P. Hackett, and Bert T. Swanson

Several inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and action, as well as an atmospheric ethylene scrubber, were used to investigate the role of ethylene in adventitious root initiation in de-bladed petioles from the juvenile and mature phase of English ivy (Hedera helix L.). Induction of root primordia required NAA regardless of the inhibitor treatment. Difficult-to-root mature petioles have been shown to produce higher amounts of ethylene than easy-to-root juvenile petioles. However, mature petioles failed to root under any combination of NAA and inhibitor treatment, indicating that the continued evolution of ethylene in NAA-treated mature petioles was not responsible for the absence of a rooting response. Root initiation in juvenile petioles was not affected by treatment with the ethylene action inhibitors STS and NDE, nor by removal of atmospheric ethylene with KMnO. Inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis using AVG or AOA reduced root initiation in juvenile petioles, but this response was not well-correlated to the observed reduction in ethylene evolution. The inhibitory action of AVG could not be reversed by the addition of ethylene gas or ACC, which indicated that AVG could be acting through a mechanism other than the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis. Chemical names used: 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC); silver thiosulfate (STS); 2,5-norbornadiene (NDE); aminoethyoxyvinyl-glycine (AVG); aminooxyacetic acid (AOA).

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Hisashi Yamada and George C. Martin

Adding Al2O3 to 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) solution did not alter the sensitivity of the leaf abscission zone to external ethylene. Exogenous ethylene at 791 nl·liter-1 for 72 to 120 hours and at 193 nl·liter-1 for 120 hours induced leaf abscission, whereas no leaf abscission occurred at 47 nl·liter-1 for 72 to 120 hours. Ethylene at 791 nl·liter-1 for 72 to 120 hours increased ethylene evolution, but the amount of ethylene evolved from the explants does not seem to be enough to induce leaf abscission. Three different ethylene inhibitors—aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), CoCl2, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)—were used to determine whether P-induced leaf abscission was mediated through elevated ethylene evolution. Although AOA and CoCl2 failed to inhibit ethylene evolution from the explants stem-fed with NaH2PO4, AVG inhibited ethylene evolution. Each inhibitor, except 5 mm CoCl2, promoted leaf abscission when administered alone or with P. Our results reveal that P-induced olive leaf abscission may occur without elevated ethylene evolution. At 40 or 75 mm NaH2PO4, abscission did not occur until explants were removed from N2 and placed in ambient air.

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George L. Staby, Richard M. Basel, Michael S. Reid, and Linda L. Dodge

Three commercially available “anti-ethylene” treatment solutions were tested for their effectiveness in protecting carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L. `Improved White Sim', `Atlantis', and `Nora'), Beard-Tongue (Penstemon hartwegii x P. cobaea `Firebird'), and Delphinium sp. from external ethylene levels ranging from 0.01 to 1.2 ppm. Flowers were treated according to label directions and then exposed to ethylene for 20 or 24 h at 20 to 23C after a 0-, 24-, or 48-h delay. Only the product containing silver thiosulfate (STS) provided protection against ethylene injury, whereas products containing inhibitors of ethylene synthesis identified as analogs of either aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) or aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG) offered little or no protection. The safe commercial use of products containing STS is discussed.

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M.N. Nzaramba, Douglas C. Scheuring, and J. Creighton Miller Jr.

Antioxidants are important to human health, as they are responsible for reduced risk of diseases such as cancer, hence motivating researchers to examine crop plants for available antioxidant compounds. There is also increasing interest in the use of antioxidants from plants instead of synthetic products. In order to evaluate variability of antioxidant activity (AOA) in cowpea, 697 cowpea accessions from the U.S. Cowpea Core Collection obtained from the Regional Plant Introduction Station, Griffin, Ga., were analyzed for AOA expressed as μg trolox equivalents/gdw. Two grams of dry seed from each accession were ground, extracted in methanol and analyzed for AOA using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), method. A large variation in AOA within the core collection, ranging from 1859 μg·g–1 dw (PI 180355, pigmented seed coat) to 42.6 μg·g–1 dw (PI 583100, cream seed coat), was observed. A least significant difference of 131.5 (p =0.05) was obtained. Higher AOA was manifested by accessions with pigmented seed coats. Accessions that were speckled, striped or had a pigmented eye were moderate in AOA, while the cream types were generally low. Variability in AOA observed among cowpea accessions suggests that breeding for high AOA can be successfully conducted. Accessions with high AOA could also be used to extract antioxidants for industrial purposes. Some accessions were a mixture of various colors and patterns, making it difficult to classify them into a particular category. Therefore, there is need to ensure purity of these accessions by ascertaining whether the mixtures are physical, i.e., combination of different varieties, or are composed of segregating material.

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Pamela L. Robinson, Niels Maness, John Solie, and Byron Criner

Sage contains the antioxidant thujone, which can be used to preserve foods in place of synthetic antioxidants. This study was conducted to determine if different harvesting methods would affect greater retention of antioxidant activity (AOA) of sage. The harvesting methods evaluated included sickle harvest, hand harvest, and flail harvest. Harvested samples were air-dried (temperature range 15 to 49C) and oven-dried (continuous 49C). Leaf area analysis indicated that flail harvesting induced substantial chopping and size reduction of the harvested material. AOA of sample extracts was measured using a carotinoid bleaching process against a standard BHT solution. Our results show a definite difference in retention of AOA between the harvesting methods (sickle 65%, hand 55%, flail 50% of BHT). This difference between harvesting methods was the same over the two drying treatments, although oven drying resulted in a decrease in AOA for all harvesting methods. Supported by USDA grant 93-34150-8409 and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station.

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M. Ndambe Nzaramba, Anna L. Hale, Douglas C. Scheuring, and J. Creighton Miller Jr.

The inheritance of antioxidant activity (AOA) and its association with seedcoat color was investigated in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. Four advanced cowpea lines, ARK95-356 (black seedcoat) and ARK98-348 (red seedcoat), which were high (H) in AOA, and ARK96-918 (cream seedcoat) and LA92-180 (cream seedcoat), which were low (L) in AOA, were selected from the 2002 Regional Southernpea Cooperative Trials. They were crossed in a complete diallel mating design, generating F1, F1′ (1st generation and 1st generation reciprocal cross, respectively), F2, F2′ (2nd generations from F1, F1′), BC1, and BC2 (backcrosses to parents 1 and 2, respectively) populations. Individual seeds were ground and samples were extracted in methanol and analyzed for AOA using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Combining ability tests using Griffing's Method I Model I indicated presence of highly significant general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal (RE) and maternal (MAT) effects, with pigmented lines exhibiting positive GCA and MAT, while nonpigmented lines exhibited negative GCA and MAT. AOA in the F1 was not significantly different from the maternal parent, with seedcoat color also resembling the maternal parent. Segregation for seedcoat color was observed in the F2 and F2′. Additive, dominance, and epistatic effects were significant. The broad sense heritability estimate was 0.87. Minimum number of genes responsible for AOA was estimated at five. Factors governing high AOA appeared to be the same as those responsible for seedcoat color, with apparent pleiotropic effects. In conclusion, breeding for high AOA in cowpea is possible using highly pigmented parental lines.

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David Byrne*, Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David Ramming, and W. Okie

Stone fruits contain a range of phenolic compounds and carotenoids which have been implicated in improving human health. The objective of this study was to characterize the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity (AOA) exhibited in peaches and plums. Twenty-two peach varieties and fifty-three plum varieties with different flesh and skin color collected from fields in California, Georgia, and Texas were analyzed for their antioxidant content and AOA. Total phenolics, anthocyanins, carotenoids were analyzed spectrophotometrically. AOA was evaluated by DPPH. Anthocyanin and phenolic contents were higher in red-flesh than in white/yellow-flesh peaches. Carotenoid content was higher in yellow-flesh [2-3 mg β-carotene/100 g fw (fresh weight)] than in white or red-flesh peaches (0.01-1.8 mg β-carotene/100 g fw). AOA was about 2-fold higher in red-flesh varieties than in white/yellow-flesh varieties. Among the peaches, the AOA was well correlated with both phenolic and anthocyanin content. Among the plums, the anthocyanin content increased with the red color intensity. Although the plums varied widely in phenolic content, the red/purple-flesh plums generally had higher phenolic content (400-500 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g fw) than the other plums. Carotenoid content in plums was similar for all varieties (0.2-2 mg β-carotene/100 g fw). AOA was higher in red/purple-flesh varieties; however, it was well correlated only with the phenolic content in light colored flesh plums. These results suggest that red-flesh peach varieties have a greater potential health benefit based on antioxidant content and AOA as compared to the white/yellow-flesh varieties. Although this trend is not clear over all the plum varieties; the red/purple-flesh plums usually have higher antioxidant content and AOA.