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Paola S. Cotroneo, Maria P. Russo, Manuela Ciuni, Giuseppe Reforgiato Recupero, and Angela R. Lo Piero

Genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), some of the enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, were assayed in two different experiments using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, in order to test their transcription levels in the flesh of blood and common orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] fruit, and to investigate their role in anthocyanin accumulation in the same tissue. The first experiment compared a blood orange and a common orange cultivar during seven different fruit maturation stages. This was followed by the test of 11 different genotypes at the end of the winter season. Data collected from the first experiment, over the blood orange cultivar, were statistically analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results show that CHS, ANS, and UFGT mRNA transcripts are up- and co-regulated in the blood orange cultivar, whereas they are down-regulated in the common orange cultivar. There is evidence of correspondence between the target genes expression level and the content of the pigment assessed. The second test confirms this correlation and shows that enzyme synthesis levels and pigment accumulation, in plants grown under the same environmental conditions, are dependent on the differences occurring among the genotypes tested. These results suggest that the absence of pigment in the common orange cultivars may be caused by the lack of induction on the structural genes expression. This is the first report on the characterization of the relationships between biosynthetic genes expression and fruit flesh anthocyanin content in blood oranges.

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Anil Khar, Jernej Jakse, and Michael J. Havey

. (2004a , 2005c ) correlated expression and segregation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) with yellow versus red bulb colors. In a confusing series of papers, variation at anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) was associated first with a new recessive locus

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John R. Stommel and Judith M. Dumm

to a colorless leucoanthocyanidin by dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), the first committed enzyme of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Leucoanthocyanidins are converted to colored anthocyanidins by anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O

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Dineshkumar Selvaraj, Sherif Sherif, Mohd Sabri Pak Dek, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Islam El-Sharkawy, and Jayasankar Subramanian

ABGs, designated Pd-PAL , Pd-CHS , Pd-DFR , Pd-ANS , and Pd-UFGT (GenBank accession numbers are listed in Supplemental Table 2 ) were isolated from frozen fruit skin tissues (at the commercial harvesting date) using the reverse transcription PCR

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David Gopaulchan, Adrian M. Lennon, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

) cloned and characterized the expression of four genes encoding key enzymes within the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, CHS , F3H , DFR , and ANS and demonstrated that the CHS , F3H , and ANS genes were coordinately controlled, whereas DFR was

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel, and Robert J. Griesbach

. RNA analysis. Flavonoid gene expression [MYC, MYB, and WD transcription factors, anthocyanin synthase ( Ans ), dihydroflavonol reductase ( Dfr ), and chalcone synthase ( Chs )] was compared under inductive and noninductive environments for

Open access

Ying Fang, Ting Lei, Yanmei Wu, and Xuehua Jin

-reductase (DFR), ANS, anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), and other enzymes ( Grotewold, 2006 ; Koes et al., 2005 ; Nguyen et al., 2006 ; Nováková et al., 2006 ; Sheng et al., 2018 ; Tanaka and Ohmiya, 2008 ). For example, the color variation in Brunfelsia

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Robert J. Griesbach, Ronald M. Beck, John Hammond, and John R. Stommel

that the level of expression of chalcone isomerase gene ( Chi ), flavanone 3-hydroxylase ( F3H ), dihydroflavonol reductase ( Dfr ), flavonoid 3-glucosyltransferase ( 3Gt ), and anthocyanin synthase ( Ans ) was similar in white and red tissues ( Koseki

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John R. Stommel, Gordon J. Lightbourn, Brenda S. Winkel, and Robert J. Griesbach

. × hybrida An6 locus. Leucoanthocyanidins are subsequently converted to colored anthocyanidins by anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). Finally, UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) creates the anthocyanin-3-glucoside. Two UFGT gene copies have been

Free access

Carmina Gisbert, Judith M. Dumm, Jaime Prohens, Santiago Vilanova, and John R. Stommel

expression ( Chs , Dfr , Ans , Myb , Myc , and Wd ) between ‘Black Beauty’ and E13GB42 fruits. Degenerate primer sets from Petunia × hybrida ( Griesbach and Beck, 2005 ) were used to generate PCR products. The protocols, primers, and procedure used