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Zachary D. Small, James D. McCurdy, Erick D. Begitschke and Michael P. Richard

control of wild garlic was much slower to manifest when this trial was repeated in 2017 ( Table 2 ). All treatments with ALS-inhibiting active ingredients failed to control wild garlic greater than the nontreated check when assessed 20 DAA. Only the auxin

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson and Gourav Sharma

turfgrass system since the 1980s, including populations resistant to photosystem II inhibitors, microtubule inhibitors, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitors, and, most recently, ALS inhibitors (Heap, 2012). Since 2012, the number of

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Gregory R. Armel, Robert J. Richardson, Henry P. Wilson, Brian W. Trader, Cory M. Whaley and Thomas E. Hines

reductions when applied POST in pepper ( Orzolek et al., 1986 ). Similarly, the ALS-inhibiting herbicide rimsulfuron was evaluated, but the level of tolerance was not commercially acceptable ( Ackley et al., 1998 ; Stall, 1999 ). Another ALS inhibitor

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Hiroko Sato, Tadashi Takamizo, Tsutomu Shimizu, Kiyoshi Kawai and Koichiro Kaku

). It is the target of at least five structurally distinct classes of herbicides, including pyrimidinylcarboxylates, sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, triazolopyrimidine sulfonamides, and sulfonylaminocarbonyltriazolinones ( Shimizu et al., 2002 ). ALS-inhibiting

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James T. Brosnan and Gregory K. Breeden

bulrush [ Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla], pigmy arrowhead ( Sagittaria pygmaea Miq.), and threeleaf arrowhead ( Sagittaria trifolia L.) under flooded conditions. Penoxsulam is an ALS inhibitor used for broadleaf weed control in managed turfgrass

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Jerald K. Pataky, Jonathan N. Nordby, Martin M. Williams II and Dean E. Riechers

Some sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids and inbreds can be severely injured by applications of postemergence herbicides. An association was observed between the responses of sweet corn hybrids and inbreds to nicosulfuron and mesotrione, and F2 families derived from a cross of a sensitive (Cr1) and a tolerant (Cr2) sweet corn inbred segregated for response to these two herbicides. These observations prompted us to examine the inheritance of sensitivity in sweet corn to multiple postemergence herbicide treatments with different modes of action and to determine if there was a common genetic basis for cross-sensitivity to these herbicides. The sensitive and tolerant inbreds, progeny in the F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 generations, and BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3 (S1:2) and F3:4 (S2:3) families were screened for responses to eight herbicide treatments. Based on segregation of tolerant and sensitive progeny and segregation of family responses, our data indicate that a single recessive gene in Cr1 conditioned sensitivity to four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides (foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, and rimsulfuron), a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide (mesotrione), a growth regulator herbicide combination (dicamba + diflufenzopyr), and a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide (carfentrazone). Based on highly significant positive correlations of phenotypic responses among BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3, and F3:4 families, the same gene (or closely linked genes) appeared to condition responses to each of these herbicide treatments. The dominant allele also conditions tolerance to bentazon [a photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicide] although another gene(s) also appeared to affect bentazon tolerance.

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Richard G. Greenland and Kirk A. Howatt

Nightshade species are difficult to control in tomato production and their interference reduces both tomato yield and quality. Rimsulfuron can be used to control nightshades, but species and biotypes vary in their response to rimsulfuron. The objectives of this study were to evaluate control of hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides Sendt.) and eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum Dun.) by rimsulfuron and compare North Dakota eastern black nightshade accession response to three acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides. In field studies conducted at Oakes, N. Dak., rimsulfuron at rates of 26 or 53 g·ha–1 a.i. was applied within 1 week after transplanting tomato (EPOST) or 2 to 4 weeks after transplanting (POST). Rimsulfuron gave excellent control of hairy nightshade when applied POST, and poor to excellent control when applied EPOST, with control being much better when hairy nightshade had emerged before the EPOST application. Rimsulfuron at 53 g·ha–1 provided greater control than at 26 g·ha–1 only for the EPOST applications. Rimsulfuron controlled hairy nightshade which allowed eastern black nightshade (which was not controlled by rimsulfuron) to dominate tomato. Tomato yield was lower when dominated by hairy nightshade than by eastern black nightshade. This was due to the earlier emergence and faster growth of hairy nightshade compared to eastern black nightshade. Tomato yield was higher in the hand-weeded check than for all other treatments in 1999, the only year the hand-weeded check was included in the study. Greenhouse studies on plants grown from seed collected at the experimental site verified that eastern black nightshade was tolerant to rimsulfuron but was controlled by tribenuron and imazethapyr. Rimsulfuron can be used in tomato production to control hairy nightshade, but not the accession of eastern black nightshade found in this study. Chemical names used: N-((4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)aminocarbonyl)-3-(ethylsulfonyl)-2-pyridinesulfonamide (rimsulfuron); (α,α,α-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N dipropyl-p-toluidine) (trifluralin); methyl 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl–1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)methylamino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoate (tribenuron methyl); (±)-2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo–1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (imazethapyr).

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walnut orchards have been reported in the Sacramento Valley of California. The symptoms observed in the field are consistent with ALS inhibitor herbicide damage, bispyribac-sodium in particular. However, laboratory analysis of walnut leaf samples

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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

ppb. Penoxsulam is labeled for postemergence weed control in warm- and cool-season turf and in dry-seeded or water-seeded rice. Penoxsulam is a triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide and also acts as an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, which interferes

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Mariano F. Galla, Bradley D. Hanson and Kassim Al-Khatib

acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor herbicide damage: leaf chlorosis, chlorotic spots, and internode shortening ( Al-Khatib, 2015 ). The effects of ALS inhibitor herbicides on off-target crops have been widely studied in annual and perennial crops ( Al