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Naomi R. Smith, Robert N. Trigiano, Mark T. Windham, Kurt H. Lamour, Ledare S. Finley, Xinwang Wang, and Timothy A. Rinehart

in DNA fragments among the samples. Despite some differences in the overall AFLP profiles for different trees of cultivars, the unique AFLP markers used for identifying cultivars were consistently present in both trees of the same cultivar

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Lydia E. Wahba, Nor Hazlina, A. Fadelah, and Wickneswari Ratnam

relationship among 31 Dendrobium species and Shengnan et al. (2011) determined the genetic diversity among 31 species of Dendrobium species using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. AFLP markers are dominant markers. The AFLP technique can generate

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Salih Kafkas, Mustafa Özgen, Yıldız Doğan, Burcu Özcan, Sezai Ercişli, and Sedat Serçe

. rubra from Turkey using AFLP markers to determine whether AFLP markers are appropriate for this subgroup of Morus germplasm and to have a better understanding about the taxonomical relationships among these three species. Materials and Methods

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Sara Melito, Angela Fadda, Emma Rapposelli, and Maurizio Mulas

relationships between genetic resources and factors affecting the adaptability of the plant to different environmental conditions is necessary for the optimization of its management. In the present work, AFLP markers were applied with the aim to characterize

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Boyang R. Cao and Chih-Cheng T. Chao

Polymorphisms of 21 date cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in California were determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis with near infrared fluorescence labeled primers. Four primer sets were used to detect polymorphisms. Based on the UPGMA-cluster analysis of 328 polymorphic bands, the majority of the cultivars was separated into two major groups. Cultivars Abada, Amir Hajj, Ashrasi, Bentamoda, Boyer No. 11, Deglet Beida, Horra, Javis No. 1, Khadrawy, and Thoory belonged to group I. Cultivars Badrayah, Dayri, Halawy, Haziz, Khir, Medjool, Sayer, and Zahidi belonged to group II. Cultivars Barhee and Deglet Noor were further separated from groups I and II. `Hayany' was distinct from all other date cultivars tested. These results demonstrated that AFLP markers could efficiently identify individual date cultivars. The information will be useful for future date germplasm collection and facilitated selection of diverse parents for cross hybridization in a breeding program.

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Dongyan Hu, Zuoshuang Zhang, Donglin Zhang, Qixiang Zhang, and Jianhua Li

Ornamental peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is a popular plant for urban landscapes and gardens. However, the genetic relationship among ornamental peach cultivars is unclear. In this report, a group of 51 ornamental peach taxa, originated from P. persica and P. davidiana (Carr.) Franch., has been studied using AFLPs. The samples were collected from China, Japan, and US. A total of 275 useful markers ranging in size from 75 to 500 base pairs were generated using six EcoRI/MseI AFLP primer pairs. Among them, 265 bands were polymorphic. Total markers for each taxon ranged from 90 to 140 with an average of 120. Two clades were apparent on the PAUP–UPGMA tree with P. davidiana forming an outgroup to P. persica, indicates that P. davidiana contributed less to the ornamental peach gene pools. Within P. persica clade, 18 out of 20 upright ornamental peach cultivars formed a clade, which indicated that cultivars with upright growth habit had close genetic relationship. Five dwarf cultivars were grouped to one clade, supported by 81% bootstrap value, indicating that they probably derived from a common gene pool. These results demonstrated that AFLP markers are powerful for determining genetic relationships in ornamental peach. The genetic relationships among ornamental cultivars established in this study could be useful in ornamental peach identification, conservation, and breeding.

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Donglin Zhang, Michael A. Dirr, and Robert A. Price

Cephalotaxus Sieb. and Zucc. (plum yew) species and cultivars have become popular because of their sun and shade tolerance, resistance to deer browsing, disease and insect tolerance, and cold and heat adaptability. Unfortunately, the nomenclature and classification in the literature and nursery trade are confusing due to their extreme similarity in morphology. In this study, amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to discriminate taxa and evaluate genetic differences among 90 Cephalotaxus accessions. A total of 403 useful markers between 75 and 500 base pairs (bps) was generated from three primer-pair combinations. Cluster analysis showed that the 90 accessions can be classified as four species, C. oliveri Mast., C. fortunei Hooker, C. harringtonia (Forbes) Koch., and C. ×sinensis (a hybrid species); four varieties, C. fortunei var. alpina Li, C. harringtonia var. koreana (Nakai) Rehd., C. harringtonia var. nana (Nakai) Hornibr., and C. harringtonia var. wilsoniana (Hayata) Kitamura; and eight cultivars. Suggested names are provided for mislabeled or misidentified taxa. The Cephalotaxus AFLP data serve as a guide to researchers and growers for identification and genetic differences of a taxon, and a model to establish a cultivar library against which later introductions or problematic collections can be cross-referenced.

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Jianjun Chen, Richard J. Henny, Pachanoor S. Devanand, and Chih-Cheng T. Chao

Peace lily (Spathiphyllum Schott) is one of the most popular tropical ornamental foliage plants and is used worldwide for interiorscaping. However, little information is available on the genetic relationships of cultivars. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers with near-infrared fluorescence-labeled primers, this study analyzed genetic relatedness of 63 commercial cultivars and breeding lines. Forty-eight EcoRI + 2/MseI + 3 primer set combinations were initially screened, from which six primer sets were selected and used in this investigation. All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their AFLP fingerprints, and the relationships were analyzed using the unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average cluster analysis (UPGMA). The 63 cultivars were divided into four clusters. All commercial cultivars or breeding lines resulted from crosses of some of the cultivars, a total of 45, were positioned in cluster I with Jaccard's similarity coefficients between 0.61 and 0.88. There was only one cultivar in cluster II. Cluster III contained 16 cultivars; they are either species or breeding lines generated from interspecific hybridization. Cluster IV had one unknown species. This study provides genetic evidence as to why cultivars from cluster I and III are not readily crossable because the Jaccard's similarity coefficient between the two clusters was only 0.35. Results also indicate that commercial cultivars are genetically close. Strategies for increasing genetic diversity of cultivated peace lily should be sought for future breeding efforts.

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Jianjun Chen, Richard J. Henny, David J. Norman, Pachanoor S. Devanand, and Chih-Cheng T. Chao

Dieffenbachia Schott is an important ornamental foliage plant genus. A total of 30 species has been recognized, but most cultivars come from or are related to a single species, D. maculata (Lodd.) G. Don. At least 11 of the cultivars are sports or somaclonal variants. As a result, the potential lack of genetic diversity in cultivated Dieffenbachia has become a concern. However, no research has been conducted to determine the genetic relatedness of the cultivars. This study analyzed the genetic similarity of 42 Dieffenbachia cultivars using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Six primer sets, selected from an initial screening of 48, generated a total of 453 scorable AFLP fragments of which 323 (71%) are polymorphic. All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their AFLP fingerprints. A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages, and principal coordinated analysis was carried out to show multiple dimensions of the distribution of the cultivars. The 42 cultivars were divided into three clusters; clusters I and II comprise 18 and 23 cultivars, respectively. Jaccard's similarity coefficients for cultivars in the clusters I and II varied from 0.44 to 0.95 and 0.41 to 0.87, respectively. These results indicate that broadening the genetic variability in the Dieffenbachia gene pool is needed, but the genetic similarity of many cultivars is not as close as previously thought. Additionally, Jaccard's similarity coefficients between most sports or somaclonal variants and their parents were 0.73 or lower, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations through tissue culture may play a role in the increased variation between some sports or variants and their parents.

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Pachanoor S. Devanand, Jianjun Chen, Richard J. Henny, and Chih-Cheng T. Chao

Philodendrons (Philodendron Schott) are among the most popular tropical ornamental foliage plants used for interior decoration. However, limited information is available on the genetic relationships among popular Philodendron species and cultivars. This study analyzed genetic similarity of 43 cultivars across 15 species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers with near infrared fluorescence labeled primers. Forty-eight EcoR I + 2/Mse I + 3 primer set combinations were screened, from which six primer sets were selected and used in this investigation. Each selected primer set generated 96 to 130 scorable fragments. A total of 664 AFLP fragments were detected, of which 424 (64%) were polymorphic. All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their AFLP fingerprints, and the relationships were analyzed using the unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal coordinated analysis (PCA). The 43 cultivars were divided into five clusters. Cluster I comprises eight cultivars with arborescent growth style. Cluster II has only one cultivar, `Goeldii'. There are 16 cultivars in cluster III, and most of them are self-heading interspecific hybrids originated from R.H. McColley's breeding program in Apopka, Fla. Cluster IV contains 13 cultivars that exhibit semi-vining growth style. Cluster V has five cultivars that are true vining in morphology, and they have lowest genetic similarity with philodendrons in other clusters. Cultivated philodendrons are generally genetically diverse except the self-heading hybrids in cluster III that were mainly developed using self-heading and semi-vining species as parents. Seven hybrid cultivars have Jaccard's similarity coefficients of 0.88 or higher, suggesting that future hybrid development needs to select parents with diverse genetic backgrounds.