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Muhammad Marrush, M. Yamaguchi, and M.E. Saltveit

Seeds in fruit of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum `California Wonder') plants grown in nutrient solutions deficient in potassium (<3 mmol·L-1) showed a higher incidence of sprouting (i.e., vivipary) than seeds in fruit from plants grown at adequate potassium levels (6 mmol·L-1). Tissue analysis showed a progressive drop in the leaf content of potassium with increasing plant maturation for all levels of potassium nutrition. However, potassium in fruit and seeds increased at later stages of maturity. ABA was extracted, isolated and identified from bell pepper seeds obtained from fruit grown under the potassium treatments (0.0, 0.6, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mmol·L-1) at five fruit maturity stages (mature-green to overripe). At early fruit maturity stages, there were no significant differences in seed ABA content in the fruit from the different potassium treatments. However, differences in ABA content and vivipary among the potassium treatments became highly significant as the fruit matured. The concentration of ABA in seeds of potassium-deficient treatments was ≈14% of the control (0.4 versus 2.8 μg·g-1 dry mass). High concentrations of ABA in bell pepper seeds were associated with low incidence of vivipary and high potassium content in the leaves, fruit and nutrient solution.

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María Serrano, Ma Concepción Martínez-Madrid, and Félix Romojaro

Treatment of cut `Master' carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) with 50 mm aminotriazole (ATA) in distilled water for 5 days retarded senescence, increased flower longevity by 4 days compared to the control carnations kept in distilled water and inhibited the climacteric peak of ethylene production normally produced during the senescence of these flowers. The treatment had no effect, however, on the levels of the polyamines putrescine and spermidine. Thus, the biosynthetic routes of ethylene and polyamines may not compete for the common precursor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Also, in the petals of the control carnations, increased ethylene production was correlated with increased ion leakage and abscisic acid (ABA) levels. In the ATA treated petals, ion leakage and ABA levels increased later and reached values less than 50% compared to the control carnations. Chemical names used: abscisic acid (ABA), 3-1H-amino-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl (aminotriazole), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), S-adenosyl methionine (SAM).

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Manuel G. Astacio and Marc W. van Iersel

been looking for ways to reduce transpiration and thereby potentially reduce maintenance costs while increasing the shelf life of plants. As a result of a breakthrough in microfermentation production, ABA has recently become a commercially feasible

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Nicole L. Waterland, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

major cause of postproduction decline in greenhouse crops, and plants quickly become unsalable ( Armitage, 1993 ; Barrett and Campbell, 2006 ; van Iersel et al., 2009 ). The ABA helps plants survive drought stress by closing stomata to reduce

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Shinsuke Agehara and Daniel I. Leskovar

accumulation of ABA in leaves ( Davies and Jones, 1991 ). It is well documented that ABA acts as a stress signal, which triggers adaptive changes in physiology and morphology of plants ( Taiz and Zeiger, 2002 ). For example, ABA synthesized in roots or

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Jong-Goo Kang, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Sue K. Dove, Geoffrey M. Weaver, and Marc W. van Iersel

Abscisic acid is a hormone that has an important role in regulating stomatal closure. In response to drought stress, ABA can be synthesized in roots and translocated to leaves by way of the transpirational stream ( Davies et al., 2005 ; Malladi and

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Kunkun Li, Weiqi Dong, Yun Zhao, Hongxia Xu, Junwei Chen, and Changjie Xu

endogenous ABA content. In addition, the effect of ethanol disinfection on aseptic seed germination and the prospect of supplying PPM, a broad-spectrum biocide/fungicide ( Niedz, 1998 ), to the germination medium for controlling contamination were evaluated

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M. Cecilia Peppi and Matthew W. Fidelibus

., 1994 ), but such applications can severely impair red color development of ‘Flame Seedless’ berries, so the use of CPPU is generally not recommended. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an antagonist of some plant growth regulators, including cytokinins ( Taiz and

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Nicole L. Waterland, Craig A. Campbell, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

cause of postproduction decline in greenhouse crops ( Barrett and Campbell, 2006 ). The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in plant responses to environmental stresses, and ABA applications decrease water loss and enhance drought tolerance

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Nicole L. Waterland, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

regulated by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) ( Malladi and Burns, 2007 ). The exogenous application of ABA or ABA analogs delays drought stress-induced wilting in a variety of bedding and potted plants ( Blanchard et al., 2007 ; Kim and van Iersel