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Sunitha H. Gurusinghe and Kenneth A. Shackel

Mechanized shaker harvesting of large acreages of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) Webb.] trees leads to economical use of labor, general cost reduction, and speed of harvest. However, shaking can separate the bark (all tissues external to the vascular cambium) from the wood (all tissues internal to the vascular cambium) and exposes the vascular cambial zone to infection by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. leading to mallet wound canker and loss of productivity. Treatment of ethephon caused a significant increase in the cambial strength of both branches and trunks, presumably by ethylene-induced anatomical and biochemical changes in the cambial zone. An increase in the ratio of total tangential area of the groups of ray initials to fusiform initials and the thickness of ray initial cell walls was observed as a response to ethephon treatment. Spraying an ethephon solution (500 μl-liter-1) to the runoff point on almond trunks caused significant increases in the cambial strength; ethephon, therefore, may be useful in reducing bark injury during shaker harvesting.

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Xue-Lin Huang and Anwar A. Khan

Abbreviations: ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; AVG, aminoethoxyvinylglycine; CHAS, cyclohexylammonium sulfate; DFMA, difluoromethylarginine; DFMO, difluoromethyornithine; ETH, (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid; Put, putrescine; Spd

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William B. Miller and Madeline W. Olberg

of scale and foliage leaves Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 24 32 47 Edgerton, L.J. Hatch, A.H. 1972 Absorption and metabolism of 14C(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid in apples and cherries J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 97 112 115 Flore, J.A. Bukovac, M.J. 1982 Factors

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Mario Valenzuela-Vázquez, Geno A. Picchioni, Leigh W. Murray, and Wayne A. Mackay

, electrolyte leakage, and vase life longevity. We held racemes in vase solutions with or without ethephon [(2, chloroethyl) phosphonic acid, or CEPA] to investigate the ability of 1-MCP to counteract the influence of an exogenous ethylene source (ethylene

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William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich, and Erik S. Runkle

., 1988 ; Rademacher, 2000 ). In contrast, ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] is a PGR that releases ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), chlorine (Cl – ), and hydrogen phosphate (H 2 PO 4 − ) on application and is known to inhibit internode elongation, induce

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Jacqueline K. Burns, Louise Ferguson, Kitren Glozer, William H. Krueger, and Richard C. Rosecrance

were applied experimentally to olive canopies in the past to improve fruit removal by trunk-shaking mechanical harvesters ( Martin, 1994 ). Of those tested, only ethylene-releasing compounds (ERCs) such as ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid

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Margaret G. Aiken, Holly L. Scoggins, and Joyce G. Latimer

Ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] has been widely used as a foliar spray in the commercial greenhouse industry for decades to abort flowers, promote branching, and restrict plant growth ( Kays and Beaudry, 1987 ). Growers have reported

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Kellie J. Walters and Roberto G. Lopez

commonly used PGRs are gibberellin inhibitors that control extension growth by inhibiting various steps in the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway ( Rademacher, 2000 ). Although the PGR ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid; ETH] is not a gibberellin

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W. Roland Leatherwood, John M. Dole, and James E. Faust

revenue. Understandably, reducing losses of cuttings during shipping is a critical research interest for cutting producers, plant plug producers, and finished plant producers. Ethephon [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] is used on New Guinea impatiens stock

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W.A. Dozier Jr., R. Rodriguez-Kabana, A.W. Caylor, D.G. Himelrick, N.R. McDaniel, and J.A. McGuire

The yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f flavicarpa Degener), a perennial vine grown in the tropics and subtropics, was successfully grown as an annual crop in a temperate zone. Fruit maturity was hastened by ethephon treatments to allow harvest before the mean date of the first killing frost. Maturity was advanced in a linear manner with application rates of 150, 300, and 600 ppm ethephon. Total yield was not affected by ethephon treatment; however, cull fruit producing no juice increased with increasing rates of ethephon, thereby reducing marketable yields. Soluble solids and ascorbic acid contents of the juice were not affected by ethephon treatment. Purple passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) did not produce blossoms.