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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

The ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prevents plant tissues from responding to ethylene ( Sisler and Blankenship, 1996 ) by combining with ethylene receptors ( Sisler and Serek, 1997 ). Impacts of 1-MCP demonstrated for many

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Andrea Balogh, Tímea Koncz, Viktória Tisza, Erzsébet Kiss, and László Heszky

making possible the cDNA–AFLP experiments at the Department of Molecular Biology (Ghent University, Belgium) and Giovanni Regilori (Rohm and Haas) for kindly providing free samples of 1-MCP.

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James P. Mattheis

‘d’Anjou’ pears can develop the peel disorder superficial scald (scald) ( Chen, 2016 ), and this defect can be prevented by 1-MCP application after harvest ( Argenta et al., 2003 ; Calvo, 2003 ; Chen and Spotts, 2006 ). Although 1-MCP treatment

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Rongcai Yuan and Jianguo Li

). 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, has been used to delay postharvest ripening of climacteric fruit such as apples ( Blankenship and Dole, 2003 ). Recently, a sprayable formulation of 1-MCP became available for use in the

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Rongcai Yuan and David H. Carbaugh

; Greene, 2005 ; Schupp and Greene, 2004 ). 1-Methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action, has been used to delay postharvest ripening of climacteric fruit such as apples ( Fan et al., 1999 ; Sisler and Serek, 1997 ), peaches ( Kluge and

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Farzad Nazari and Mahmoud Koushesh Saba

biosynthesis inhibitor 1-MCP as a nontoxic to humans has been demonstrated to extend the storage life of a range of cut flowers ( Scariot et al., 2014 ). Hassanpour Asil et al. (2013) reported that the application of 1-MCP extends the vase life of cut spray

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H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe*, Dennis P. Murr, Jennifer R. DeEll, and Joseph Odumeru

Wounding during processing triggers physiological reactions that limits shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Exposure of `Empire' and `Crispin' apples at harvest to the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFresh™) on the maintenance of fresh-cut apple quality was evaluated in combination with post-cut dipping of NatureSeal™. Efficacy of 1-MCP on fresh-cut physiology and quality depended on the storage duration and apple cultivar. Ethylene production and respiration of apple slices were inhibited by 1-MCP but not by NatureSeal. Total volatiles produced by fresh-cut apples was not affected by the treatments. 1-MCP influenced the quality attributes of fresh-cut apple slices prepared from apples stored either 4 months in cold storage or 6 months in controlled atmosphere. Enzymatic browning and softening of the cut-surface, total soluble solids, and total microbial growth were suppressed by 1-MCP in `Empire' apples. Overall, the influence of 1-MCP on quality attributes in `Crispin' apple slices was marginal. NatureSeal consistently maintained the firmness of fresh-cut apple slices held at 4 °C for up to 21 days. The additive effect of 1-MCP in the maintenance of apple quality is an advantage for processing and marketing of fresh-cut apples.

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H.P.V. Rupasinghe, D.P. Murr, and G. Paliyath

`McIntosh' apples were treated at 20 °C with 0.0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 ppm 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; EthylBloc™) a day after harvest for 18 h and stored at 0 °C in air. Apples were also continuously exposed to 0.0 and 25 ppm 1-MCP under controlled atmosphere (CA; 0 °C in 4.5 kPa CO2 and 3 kPa O2) by re-establishing the initial concentration at week 9 and 17. The threshold concentration of 1-MCP at 20 °C to inhibit de novo ethylene production in apple fruit was determined to be 1.0 ppm. Interestingly, the ethylene antagonist completely inhibited (99.67%) ethylene production in apples, which were removed from 0 °C in air and CA after 9 weeks and held at 20 °C up to 6 days. Overall, ethylene production was 10- to 100-fold less in apples treated with 1 ppm and above 1-MCP than in untreated apples. 1-MCP-treated apples showed less softening; fruit firmness was 2-4 Lb higher compared to untreated apples. Total soluble solids of apples was not affected by 1-MCP treatment. Total hydrophobic volatiles, including the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon α-farnesene, from apples measured by SPME/GC showed an inverse relation to 1-MCP concentration. Contents of α-farnesene and its putative superficial scald-causing catabolite, conjugated triene alcohol, in the skin were reduced 60% to 90% by 1-MCP. However, 1-MCP did not suppress the incidence of scald or other disorders, e.g., stem cavity, browning and brown core, in `McIntosh' apples.

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Fernando Vallejo and Randolph Beaudry

We tested the sorptive capacity of a number of nontarget materials found in apple storage rooms on their capacity to remove 1-MCP from the storage atmosphere and thereby compete with the fruit for the active compound. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of temperature and moisture. Nontarget materials included bin construction materials [high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), weathered oak, nonweathered oak, plywood, and cardboard] and wall construction materials (polyurethane foam and cellulose-based fire retardant). Each piece had an external surface area of 76.9 cm2. We placed our “nontarget” materials in 1-L mason jars and added 1-MCP gas to the headspace at an initial concentration of ≈30 μL·L-1. Gas concentrations were measured after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours. The concentration of 1-MCP in empty jars was stable for the 24-hour holding period. Little to no sorption was detected in jars containing dry samples of HDPE, PP, cardboard, polyurethane foam, or fire retardant. Inclusion of plywood, nonweathered oak, and weathered oak lead to a loss of 10%, 55%, and 75% of the 1-MCP after 24 hours, respectively. Using dampened materials, no sorption resulted from the inclusion of HDPE, PP, polyurethane foam, or the fire retardant. However, the rate of sorption of 1-MCP by dampened cardboard, plywood, weathered oak, and nonweathered oak increased markedly, resulting in a depletion of ≈98%, 70%, 98%, and 98%, respectively. The data suggest that there are situations where 1-MCP levels can be compromised by wooden and cardboard bin and bin liner materials, but not by plastic bin materials or typical wall construction materials.

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Seok-Kyu Jung and Jung-Myung Lee

Fruits of `Tsugaru' (an early maturing cultivar), `Hongro' (mid-season cultivar), and `Fuji' (late cultivar), were harvested at different times of the year, depending upon their maturity, and treated with 1-MCP at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppm for 8-24 hours. Fruits were also treated with 1-MCP at different times after harvest. Portions of 1-MCP-treated apples were also treated with ethylene in order to study the interaction between 1-MCP and ethylene. In other experiments, fruits were treated with ethylene first and then treated again with 1-MCP. Major results are as follows. Treatment of 1-MCP greatly retarded the senescence of `Tsugaru' apple stored at room temperatures as compared with the control. The sooner the time of 1-MCP treatment after harvest of fruit, the greater was the 1-MCP effect. In contrast to the time of 1-MCP treatment, the concentration of 1-MCP and duration of 1-MCP infiltration in a closed chamber exhibited only a minor effect. Ethylene treatment immediately before and/or after the 1-MCP treatment showed only the 1-MCP effect, thus clearly showing that 1-MCP treatment could completely reverse or counter the ethylene effect in `Fuji' apples. Repeated treatments of 1-MCP after a certain period of low temperature storage of `Fuji' apples were more effective than a single treatment. Parameters related with fruit quality will be discussed in detail.