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S.D. Nelson, C. Riegel, L.H. Allen Jr., D.W. Dickson, J. Gan, S.J. Locascio, and D.J. Mitchell

One of the proposed alternative chemicals for methyl bromide is 1,3-D. The most common forms of 1,3-D products are cis- or trans-isomers of 1,3-D with the fungicidal agent, chloropicrin, containing such mixtures as 65% 1,3-D and 35% chloropicrin (C-35). Soil fumigants are commonly applied under a polyethylene film in Florida raised bed vegetable production. Much of the research regarding cropping system effects of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide has focused primarily on plant growth parameters, with little regard to the atmospheric fate of these chemicals. The objective of this research was to determine both the atmospheric emission of 1,3-D under different plastic film treatments and to evaluate effects of application rates of 1,3-D and C-35 on plant pests, growth, and yield of Sunex 9602 summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Results showed that use of a high barrier polyethylene film (or virtually impermeable film - VIF) greatly reduced fumigant emission compared to ground cover with conventional polyethylene films or uncovered soil. Summer squash seedling survival was a severe problem in several of the 1,3-D alone treatments where no fungicidal agent was added, whereas C-35 resulted in excellent disease control at both full and one-half of the recommended application rates for this chemical. Both 1,3-D and C-35 provided good plant stands and higher yields when applied at their recommended application rates. However, all squash yields were lower than typical squash production levels due to late planting and early winter frost kill. Chemical names used: 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); trichloronitropropene (chloropicrin).

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Husein A. Ajwa, Rachael E. Goodhue, Oleg Daugovish, Zahanghir Kabir, and Steven A. Fennimore

, in 2002–2003 ( C ) and 2003–2004 ( D ) seasons. Reference line in A–D is of the MBPic standard applied at 392 kg·ha −1 under an HDPE tarp. 1,3-D = 1,3-dichloropropene; Pic = chloropicrin; VIF = virtually impermeable film; HDPE = high

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Laurie E. Trenholm, Darin W. Lickfeldt, and William T. Crow

This research was conducted to determine if application of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) could reduce turfgrass water requirements in soil infested with sting nematodes (Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau). The effects of 1,3-D and fenamiphos were evaluated on quality and persistence of `Tifway 419' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) subjected to drought or deficit irrigation. The research consisted of two greenhouse studies in 2002 and 2003 where irrigation was either withheld or applied in deficit quantities, and one field study in 2003 where irrigation was withheld. In general, 1,3-D-treated turf maintained up to 40% higher quality during drought than other treatments and had up to 27% less leaf wilting. As drought severity increased, 1,3-D treatments had better spectral reflectance values, indicating better physiological functioning under stress. Results of this research suggest that application of 1,3-D in sting nematode-infested soils may increase bermudagrass drought survival.

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Johan Desaeger and Alex Csinos

The effects of drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of vegetable seedlings were investigated in three separate tests in Tifton, Ga. Tests were conducted in Spring 2002, Fall 2002, and Spring 2003. Phytotoxicity of 1,3-D + chloropicrin was induced in the 2002 tests by applying progressively higher rates (0 to 374 L·ha–1) of drip-irrigated InLine (an emulsifiable formulation (EC) containing 60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% chloropicrin) and planting vegetable seedlings within four days after application. Vegetables evaluated were tomato, pepper and cucumber (Spring 2002), and tomato and squash (Fall 2002). In Spring 2003, the effects of 1,3-D formulation (InLine versus Telone EC, an EC containing 94% 1,3-D), plastic mulch type [low density polyethylene (LDPE) versus virtually impermeable film (VIF)] and drip tape configuration (one versus two drip tapes) on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of tomato were investigated. Tomato was planted after the recommended 3-week waiting period. Fumigant concentrations in soil were measured using Gastec detection tubes at 1 to 4 days after drip fumigation in all three tests. Measured fumigant soil gas concentrations were correlated with fumigant application rates in Spring 2002, but not in Fall 2002. Vegetables were visibly affected by residual fumigant levels in the soil and showed symptoms such as leaf chlorosis (cucumber, squash and pepper), leaf bronzing (tomato) and stem browning and stunting (all crops). Fumigant soil air levels were negatively and linearly correlated with different plant growth parameters, in particular plant vigor. The cucurbit crops showed an immediate response and high mortality within 1 week after planting. Surviving plants recovered well in fall. The solanaceous crops showed a more delayed response and lower mortality rates. However, phytotoxic effects with tomato and pepper were more persistent and plants did not seem to recover with time. Overall, fumigant residue levels and potential phytotoxicity were greater in spring than in fall. Greater fumigant soil concentrations were measured under VIF as compared to LDPE plastic mulch. The effect of drip-tape configuration varied with the type of plastic mulch that was used. The double-tape treatment resulted in lower fumigant levels at the bed center under LDPE mulch, and higher fumigant levels at the bed shoulder under VIF mulch. The formulation containing 94% 1,3-D resulted in higher soil fumigant levels as compared to the formulation containing 61% 1,3-D and 33% chloropicrin, especially with VIF mulch. Early plant vigor of tomato was negatively correlated with fumigant soil gas levels, and was especially poor following drip fumigation with 94% 1,3-D under VIF mulch.

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Carlene A. Chase, William M. Stall, Eric H. Simonne, Robert C. Hochmuth, Michael D. Dukes, and Anthony W. Weiss

An evaluation of the effect of bed width (24, 28, 32, and 36 inches) on the control of a mixed population of nutsedge [yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (C. rotundus)] was conducted with an emulsifiable concentrate formulation of a 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) mixture (1,3-DCP) for application through drip irrigation systems. Beds were mulched with either 1.4-mil-thick virtually impermeable film (VIF) or 0.75-mil-thick high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and 1,3-DCP was applied at 35 gal/acre by surface chemigation or via subsurface chemigation 6 inches deep within the bed. HDPE was more permeable to gaseous 1,3-D than VIF so that 1 day after treatment (DAT), 1,3-D gas concentration at the bed centers under VIF was significantly higher than under HDPE. Dissipation of 1,3-D gas with HDPE occurred within 7 DAT, but dissipation with VIF took ∼10 days. In bed centers, 1,3-D concentrations 1 DAT were in the range of 2.3 to 2.9 mg·L–1 whereas in bed shoulders concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 0.55 mg·L–1. In 2002 and 2003, 1,3-D concentration in shoulders of narrower beds was significantly higher than in the wider beds, but dissipated more rapidly than in wider beds. Lower initial 1,3-D concentrations were observed with HDPE film in shoulders than with VIF and the rate of dissipation was lower with VIF. At 14 DAT, nutsedge plants were densely distributed along bed shoulders (19 to 27 plants/m2) with little or no emergence in the centers of beds (fewer than 5 plants/m2), but with no response to bed width. Nutsedge density increased with time, but the nature of the increase differed with bed width. The most effective nutsedge suppression was achieved with 36-inch beds, which had densities of 11–13 plants/m2 on bed centers and 53 plants/m2 on bed shoulders by 90 DAT. Nutsedge suppression was initially more effective with VIF than with HDPE film, so that no nutsedge emerged in the centers of beds mulched with VIF compared with 2–7 plants/ m2 with HDPE by 14 DAT. On bed shoulders there were 2–7 plants/m2 with VIF and 32–57 plants/m2 with HDPE. Increase in nutsedge density with time was greater with VIF so that by 90 DAT nutsedge densities on bed centers and shoulders were greater than with HDPE in 2002 and the same as with HDPE in 2003. Subsurface chemigation did not consistently improve suppression of nutsedge when compared with surface chemigation. Concentrations of 1,3-D in bed shoulders irrespective of bed width were nonlethal. Initial superior nutsedge suppression with VIF did not persist. Nutsedge control in a sandy soil with 1,3-DCP chemigation is unsatisfactory with one drip-tape per bed.

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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath, Timothy N. Motis, Marcel von Hulten, and Myriam N. Siham

Field trials were conducted to: 1) determine the effect of mulch types and applied concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin (1,3-D + Pic) on fumigant retention; and 2) examine the influence of mulch films and 1,3-D + Pic concentrations on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) control. 1,3-D + Pic concentrations were 0, 600, 1000, and 1400 ppm, and mulch types were white on black high-density polyethylene mulch (HDPE), white on black virtually impermeable film (VIF-WB), silver on white metalized mulch, and green VIF (VIF-G). Regardless of the initial 1,3-D + Pic concentrations and mulch types, fumigant retention exponentially decreased over time. When 1400 ppm of 1,3-D + Pic were injected into the soil, 1,3-D + Pic dissipation reached 200 ppm at 3.2, 2.9, 2.2, and 1.5 days after treatment (DAT) under VIF-G, VIF-WB, metalized, and HDPE mulches, respectively. At 5 weeks after treatment (WAT), HDPE mulch had the highest purple nutsedge densities among all films. The treatments covered with VIF-G had purple nutsedge densities <5 plants/ft2, regardless of the applied fumigant concentration, while VIF-WB and metalized mulch reached this weed density with 696 ppm of the fumigant. In contrast, 1186 ppm of 1,3-D + Pic were needed to reach this weed density with HDPE mulch. Correlation analysis showed that mulch fumigant retention readings at 3 DAT effectively predict purple nutsedge densities at 5 WAT (r ≤ –0.94). These findings proved that 1,3-D + Pic activity on purple nutsedge can be improved with the use of more retentive films, which cause longer fumigant retention, thus improving efficacy. Growers might elect reducing 1,3-D + Pic rates to compensate for the relatively higher cost of fumigant-retentive mulches, without losing herbicidal activity.

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James P. Gilreath, Bielinski M. Santos, Myriam N. Siham, Paul Vaculin, and Michael Herrington

Previous research has demonstrated stimulation of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) with chloropicrin when applied at rates ranging from 100 to 150 lbs/acre (112 to 168 kg·ha–1) under low or high density polyethylene film mulch. This stimulatory effect has been exploited in research by developing a program of metam application 5 days after application of chloropicrin, thus placing metam in the soil once the tubers have begun to sprout and are most vulnerable. This project was expanded in 2004–05 to include the commercial emulsifiable concentrate formulation of 65% 1,3-dichloropropene and 35% chloropicrin (1,3-D + Pic) and virtually impermeable film mulch as well as high density polyethylene film. The test site was a commercial tomato farm in west central Florida with a heavy infestation of purple nutsedge. Chloropicrin was applied into raised beds through three gas knives, while 1,3-D + Pic and metam potassium were applied in 1 acre inch of water through 2 drip irrigation tubes spaced 10 inches apart and 5 inches from the bed center. Metam was applied 5 days after application of chloropicrin and 1,3-D + Pic. Treatments were applied under both standard high density polyethylene film (Hilex and Bromostop) VIF. Stimulation of nutsedge sprouting and emergence was about the same with either chloropicrin alone or combined with 1,3-D; however, there was some enhancement when applied under VIF. There was a slight improvement in efficacy of metam potassium when applied alone under VIF, contrary to previous results. Application of metam 5 days after application of chloropicrin or 1,3-D + Pic greatly improved nutsedge control over that observed without the subsequent application of metam and VIF improved results to some degree. Producers of drip irrigated crops in Florida can achieve acceptable to excellent nutsedge control using this sequential application technique combined with VIF; however, the addition of a second drip tube on the bed top increases expense by about $125/acre and is not compatible with crops grown with more than a single row on the bed.

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Sally M. Schneider and Bradley D. Hanson

narrower spectrum of pests and pathogens and are more sensitive to soil conditions ( Duniway, 2002 ). For some soil texture and soil moisture conditions, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) is an approved soil treatment for certified nursery production in

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Robert E. Uhlig, George Bird, Robert J. Richardson, and Bernard H. Zandstra

programs focus primarily on plant aesthetic qualities and not on disease tolerance, often leaving crops susceptible to diseases ( Sances, 2005 ). Metham sodium, chloropicrin, 1,3-dichloropropene, and iodomethane are potential substitutes for MB in

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S.M. Schneider, B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrestha, T.J. Trout, and S. Gao

spectrum of pests and pathogens and are more sensitive to soil conditions ( Duniway, 2002 ). For some California nurseries with sandy soils, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) is an approved treatment for certified nursery stock ( CDFA, 2002 ); however, maximum