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Masahiko Yamada, Hiroyasu Yamane, and Yastio Ukai

Three individuals in progeny from each of 39 crosses and their parents in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were evaluated for fruit ripening time. Analysis of variance for the progeny, which estimated between- and within-cross variance, and the regression of the mean value in a full-sib family on the mid-parental value (MP) revealed that the genetic differences among crosses could be explained solely by MP. Genotypic values of individuals in progeny from a cross were assumed to be normally distributed around the regression line with within-cross genetic variance. Based on the parental mean performance of 3.5 fruit on a single tree for three years, the coefficient of regression of mean values in a full-sib family on MP was 0.99 ± 0.10, and the proportion of individuals in progeny having genotypic values ripening earlier than early October was estimated as 52%, 24%, and 7% for three sets of mid-parents differing in their ripening time, i.e., early, middle, and late October, respectively. On the basis of the parental mean performance in 10 fruit on a single tree without yearly repetition, the regression coefficient was estimated as 0.91 and the proportion was estimated as 44%, 20%, and 6% for the three sets of mid-parents, respectively.

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Qi Sun, Xingnan Zhao, Lei Wu, Jimin Zhao, Yunfei Yang, and Yanwen Zhang

may affect the plant reproductive efficiency ( Burd, 1994 ; Dogterom et al., 2000 ; Shore and Barrett, 1984 ). Such differences may result in variation in fruit set, and seed number per fruit may substantially affect the ripening time of fruit and

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Jeremy Burdon, David Billing, and Paul Pidakala

Postharvest Biol. Technol. 86 134 140 Burdon, J. Lallu, N. Haynes, G. Francis, K. Patel, M. Laurie, T. Hardy, J. 2015 Relationship between dry matter and ripening time in ‘Hass’ avocado Acta Hort. 1091 291 296 Burdon, J. Lallu, N. Haynes, G. McDermott, K

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Shyi-Kuan Ou and Chia-Wei Song

The `Xiami' peach [Prunus persica SummerHoney(`Xiami')] has been released by the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Council of Agriculture to provide a late maturity in the last few days of May to mid June, a large peach, high yielding, excellent quality, melting, white with red fleshed, freestone, with a very low chilling requirement of around 125 chill units. `Xiami' peach is named for its late ripening time, juicy, low acid, and sweet fruit.

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M. Yamada, H. Yamane, K. Yoshinaga, and Y. Ukai

Genetic and environmental variances for fruit ripening time (FRT), fruit weight, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) were estimated. The variance among fruit within a tree was the largest among environmental variances. Therefore, using a large sample size per tree and per year effectively increased heritability, but the effect was minimal when more than five fruit were sampled. The variance among years was largest for SSC and smallest for FRT. Generally, the variance associated with the genotype × year interaction was as large as the tree × year interaction. The variance among trees within a genotype was negligible for all traits. Repeating measurements yearly was more efficient than replicating trees.

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt

Self- and cross-fertility was evaluated in the highbush blueberry cultivars Bluegold, Duke, Legacy, Nelson, Sierra, Sunrise, and Toro, all released since 1987, by comparing them to standards of `Bluecrop' and `Rubel'. Percent fruit set increased with cross-pollination in all cultivars except `Bluecrop', which decreased by 13%. The average increase in the recently released cultivars was 43%. Fruit weight also increased in cross-pollinations for all cultivars except `Rubel', which showed a decrease of 2%. Average increase in fruit weight on cross-pollination in the recently released cultivars was 27%. Fruit set and fruit weight measurements suggest that `Duke', `Legacy', and `Nelson' could perform well in solid stands, but `Sierra' and `Toro' are more likely to need cross-pollination for best yields. Investigations were also made on a group of 10 cultivars, to evaluate whether ripening time of the pollen source cultivar had any effect on the ripening time of the fruiting parent. No single pollen source had consistent general effects on ripening, although specific combinations of females and males appeared to either hasten or delay ripening. The largest deviations were seen in delays of ripening, suggesting that poor pollination may have been the greatest factor contributing to the observed variation in ripening times.

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Kim E. Hummer, Tom Davis, Hiroyuki Iketani, and Hiroyuki Imanishi

Genetic resources of temperate berry crops were collected 7 to 27 July 2004 in Hokkaido, Japan, under a bilateral agreement between the United States and Japan. This expedition was a collaborative effort between the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), the University of New Hampshire, and Akita Prefectural College of Agriculture, Japan. Additional assistance was provided by the Hokkaido Governmental Plant Genetic Resources Center, several Forest Research Stations of the Hokkaido University, and private botanists. The expedition obtained 100 accessions encompassing eight genera and 29 species. In all, 84 seedlots, and 23 plants were obtained. The genera collected included: Actinidia, Fragaria, Lonicera, Morus, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus, and Vaccinium. Plant and seed accessions from this trip are preserved and distributed from the USDA ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Ore., and from MAFF. The target genus for this expedition was Fragaria, so the trip was planned for July. Multiple samples of the two Japanese diploid strawberry species, Fragaria iinumae Makino and F. nipponica Makino (synonym = F. yezoensis H. Hara) were obtained during their prime ripening time. Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium fruits ripened later in the summer, but were collected when fruit were observed. Unfortunately, seeds of some of these accessions proved to be immature or nonviable upon extraction. We suggest that expeditions to collect these genera should be planned for late August. Morphological and molecular evaluation of collected germplasm is underway at the USDA ARS Corvallis Repository and at the University of New Hampshire.

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K.G. Weis, S.M. Southwick, J.T. Yeager, W.W. Coates, and Michael E. Rupert

The years 1995 and 1996 were low chill years in California with respect to stone fruit dormancy. Advancing reproductive budbreak and flowering was accomplished in `Bing' cherry (Prunus avium) by single-spray treatments of a surfactant {a polymeric alkoxylated fatty amine [N,N-bis 2-(omega-hydroxypolyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene) ethyl alkylamine]} and potassium nitrate in combination when applied at “tightbud,” ≈ 42 days (1 Feb. 1995) before full bloom and with surfactant and potassium nitrate in combination when 10% green calyx was apparent, 33 days before full bloom. Applying 2% surfactant (v/v) + 6% potassium nitrate (w/v) was most effective in advancing bloom, speeding progression through bloom, and advancing fruit maturity when applied at tightbud stage. Surfactant (2% or 4%) applied with 25% or 35% calcium nitrate (w/v) on 2 Feb. 1996 significantly advanced full bloom compared to nontreated controls. Fruit maturity (1995) was somewhat advanced by surfactant–nitrate treatments, but fruit set and final fruit weight were equivalent among treatments. No phytotoxicity was noted in foliage or fruit. In California, marginal and insufficient winter chilling often causes irregular, extended, or delayed bloom periods, resulting in poor bloom-overlap with pollenizers. As a result, flower and fruit development may be so variable as to have small, green and ripe fruit on the same tree, making harvest more time consuming and costly. Data indicate that this surfactant, in combination with a nitrogenous compound, has potential to advance reproductive budbreak and advance maturity in sweet cherry without reducing fruit set or fruit size. Advancing the ripening time of sweet cherry even 2 to 3 days can increase the price received per 8.2-kg box by $10 to $20.

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A. Talaie and B. Panahi

The type of pollens of the date palm trees could affect on the outward and physical characteristics of date fruits, so far to determine its qualitative and quantitative aspects (15). Therefore careful selection of proper pollen for pollination of the date palms is considered of high importance. This research work was conducted to select the best pollinizers and to study the effects of pollens of five varieties of male trees, from Shahdad area, on the outward and physical characteristics of `Jiroft Mazafati'. For analyzing the results of this experiment, a completely randomized block statistical project was implemented for a period of 2 years from 1991 to 1993. The site of this experiment was in Jiroft area in Kerman Province. In this experiment, after pollination samples of fruit were collected during unripe (Kharak), ripe, and dry fruit stages and required information were recorded. Fruit length and diameter, seed length and diameter, weight of fruit, weight of seed, pulp weight, ration of fruit pulp to seed, ratio of fruit length to diameter, volume of fruit, weight of one full cluster of fruits, and finally the time of ripening were measured. Statistical calculations, analysis of compound variations and evaluation of treatments by Duncan's test indicate that different treatments of pollens will have no effect from statistical point of view on the ratio of fruit pulp to seed and the ratio of fruit length to diameter, and there are no significant differences. But there are significant effects on the other outward and physical characteristics of the fruit, and the differences from statistical point of view are considerable. The type of pollens are effective on the ripening time of the fruit and this difference ranges from 15 to 25 days for different treatments, which is important from early ripening point of view of the product.

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Abbie J. Fox, David Del Pozo-Insfran, Joon Hee Lee, Steven A. Sargent, and Stephen T. Talcott

Greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. `Robusta') were harvested at five stages of maturation (10% red to full red) in early winter 2002 (Expt. 1) and at two stages (10% red and full red) in early Spring 2002 (Expt. 2). The fruit were subsequently stored at 20 °C in a continuous-flow chamber consisting of either 100 μL·L–1 ethylene (balance air) or air-only (control) at 90% relative humidity (RH). Individual fruit were removed from the chambers upon reaching full red color, and stored at –30 °C until physicochemical analyses were conducted. Harvest maturity, and ethylene exposure had no appreciable effect on pulp soluble solids content, total titratable acidity or pH. Exposure to ethylene hastened ripening time compared to the air control but was independent of fruit maturity at harvest. Fruit exposed to ethylene reached full-red color 6.4 days (Expt. 1) and 4 days (Expt. 2) earlier than air-only fruit, respectively. There were no significant phytochemical and antioxidant differences noted for total carotenoids, total ascorbic acid, and soluble phenolics at various maturity stages due to ethylene exposure. Appreciable differences were observed between the two experiments for phytochemicals and antioxidants, as bell peppers from the latter experiment contained at least twice the concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity as those from the first experiment. Differences in these parameters between experiments were attributed to environmental factors such as average temperature, day length, and light intensity. Ethylene was demonstrated to be an effective postharvest treatment for accelerating color change in this bell pepper cultivar, permitting earlier harvest without altering phytochemical synthesis rates.