. Fry, J. Pan, X. Rajashekar, C. Bremer, D. Engelke, M. Wang, X. 2009 Cold acclimation of Zoysia japonica and Z. matrella and changes in rhizome abscisic acid levels Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 11 883 889 Zhang, X. Ervin, E.H. 2004 Cytokinin
Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han
Xi Xiong, Ken Diesburg, and Daniel T. Lloyd
Zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) is a popular turfgrass species used in golf course fairways in Missouri and surrounding states ( Lyman et al., 2007 ). Throughout this region, zoysiagrass enters dormancy typically in November and resumes
M.D. Richardson and J.W. Boyd
Establishment of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) from sprigs is often impractical for golf courses and sports fields because of the slow growth rate of the species and subsequent long establishment period. A study was conducted at two different sites in Arkansas to evaluate the effects of soil topdressing and post-plant fertility rates on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. Each site was planted according to standard methods using freshly-harvested sprigs (18 m3/ha) and either top dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil or maintained without topdressing. Beginning immediately after establishment, N was applied monthly at rates of 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, or 5.0 g·m-2 as urea. Rate of cover was monitored throughout the growing season and elemental analysis of plant tissues was determined 120 days after planting. Topdressing the sprigs with native soil significantly improved establishment compared to traditional sprigging at both sites, presumably because of enhanced sprig survival. Applications of N during the establishment period had little or no overall effect on establishment, although the 0 g·m-2 rate was slightly inferior to all other rates. This study indicates that methods that enhance sprig survival are more important than added fertility for the rapid establishment of zoysiagrass sprigs.
Alan J. Zuk and Jack D. Fry
Establishment of seeded `Zenith' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) in an existing sward of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is difficult, and chemicals arising from perennial ryegrass leaf and root tissue may contribute to establishment failure. Experiments were done to evaluate zoysiagrass emergence and growth in soil amended with perennial ryegrass leaves or roots, or after irrigation with water in which perennial ryegrass leaves or roots had previously been soaked. Compared to unamended soil, soil amended with perennial ryegrass leaves at 12% and 23% by weight reduced zoysiagrass seedling number 20% and 26%, respectively; root area and mass were reduced 50% when amendments comprised 12% of soil weight. Similar reductions in zoysiagrass seedling emergence and growth were observed in a second soil amendment study, regardless of whether perennial ryegrass was treated with glyphosate or not. Soil mixed with perennial ryegrass leaves, but not roots, at 12% by weight had a high soil conductivity (5.1 dS·m–1), which could have contributed to reduced zoysiagrass emergence and growth. More than 50% fewer zoysiagrass seedlings emerged and root mass was up to 65% lower when irrigated with water in which perennial ryegrass leaves or roots at 5, 10, or 20 g·L–1 were previously soaked for 48 hours. Zoysiagrass leaf area, and root length and area, were also lower when irrigated with water previously containing perennial ryegrass roots. Perennial ryegrass leaves and roots have the capacity to inhibit emergence and growth of `Zenith' zoysiagrass seedlings, which could negatively affect stand establishment.
M.J. Carroll, P.H. Dernoeden, and J.M. Krouse
Sprigs of `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) were treated with urea nitrogen, a biostimulator, and one of three preemergence herbicides or one of two postemergence herbicides to hasten establishment in two field studies. Monthly application of N at 48 kg·ha–1 during the growing season had no influence on sprig establishment the first year, but slightly increased (+5%) zoysiagrass cover the second year. Presoaking sprigs in a solution containing (mg·L–1) 173 auxin and 81 cytokinin, and iron at 1.25 g·L–1 before broadcasting of sprigs, and biweekly sprays (g·ha–1) of 53 auxin and 24 cytokinin, and iron at 0.2 g·L–1 or (g·ha–1) 68 auxin and 36 cytokinin, and iron at 1.45 g·L–1 after broadcasting sprigs had no effect on zoysiagrass cover or rooting. Preemergence and postemergence herbicide use generally enhanced zoysiagrass cover by reducing smooth crabgrass competition [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig) Schreb. ex Muhl]. Oxadiazon enhanced zoysiagrass coverage more than dithiopyr, pendimethalin, quinclorac, or fenoxaprop. Oxadiazon and dithiopyr provided similar levels of crabgrass control, but dithiopyr reduced `Meyer' zoysiagrass midsummer root growth. Chemical names used: 3,5,-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-[difluromethyl]-4-[2-methyl-propyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-S,S-dimethyl ester (dithiopyr); [±]-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); 3,7-dichloro-8-quin-olinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).
Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe, and Michael D. Richardson
promoters on the rate of seedling establishment of japanese lawn grass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 6 269 271 McGinnies, W.J. 1960 Effects of moisture stress and temperature on germination of six range grasses Agron. J. 52 159 162
Thomas E. Eickhoff, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, and Frederick P. Baxendale
). Although the original report of B. occiduus as a turfgrass pest was on buffalograss [ Buchloë dactyloides (Nutall) Engelmann], ( Baxendale et al., 1999 ) it has since emerged as a serious pest of zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steudel) turf in areas of
Jack D. Fry and Raymond A. Cloyd
Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS) identified all the bluegrass billbug larvae collected from the study area at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center (Manhattan, KS) during the course of the study. We evaluated ‘Meyer’ ( Zoysia japonica
Qi Zhang, Jack Fry, Channa Rajashekar, Dale Bremer, and Milton Engelke
. Chem. 277 31994 32002 Zhang, Q. Fry, J. Pan, X. Rajashekar, C. Bremer, D. Engelke, M. Wang, X. 2009 Cold acclimation of Zoysia japonica and Z. matrella and changes in
Maria P. Fuentealba, Jing Zhang, Kevin E. Kenworthy, John E. Erickson, Jason Kruse, and Laurie E. Trenholm
letter are not different at 0.05 P value. AB = African bermudagrass (n = 160); CB = common bermudagrass (n = 480); ZJ = Zoysia japonica (n = 400); ZM = Zoysia matrella (n = 320). Fig. 3. The confidence intervals (at 0.05 P level) of the rate of