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James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, and Patrick E. McCullough

Smooth crabgrass [ Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb) Schreb. ex Muhl.] infestations are common in golf course, athletic field, and landscape turf ( McCarty et al., 2005 ). Smooth crabgrass is similar to large crabgrass ( Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop

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M.J. Carroll, P.H. Dernoeden, and J.M. Krouse

Sprigs of `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) were treated with urea nitrogen, a biostimulator, and one of three preemergence herbicides or one of two postemergence herbicides to hasten establishment in two field studies. Monthly application of N at 48 kg·ha–1 during the growing season had no influence on sprig establishment the first year, but slightly increased (+5%) zoysiagrass cover the second year. Presoaking sprigs in a solution containing (mg·L–1) 173 auxin and 81 cytokinin, and iron at 1.25 g·L–1 before broadcasting of sprigs, and biweekly sprays (g·ha–1) of 53 auxin and 24 cytokinin, and iron at 0.2 g·L–1 or (g·ha–1) 68 auxin and 36 cytokinin, and iron at 1.45 g·L–1 after broadcasting sprigs had no effect on zoysiagrass cover or rooting. Preemergence and postemergence herbicide use generally enhanced zoysiagrass cover by reducing smooth crabgrass competition [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig) Schreb. ex Muhl]. Oxadiazon enhanced zoysiagrass coverage more than dithiopyr, pendimethalin, quinclorac, or fenoxaprop. Oxadiazon and dithiopyr provided similar levels of crabgrass control, but dithiopyr reduced `Meyer' zoysiagrass midsummer root growth. Chemical names used: 3,5,-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-[difluromethyl]-4-[2-methyl-propyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-S,S-dimethyl ester (dithiopyr); [±]-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); 3,7-dichloro-8-quin-olinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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Julia Whitworth

The usefulness of cover crops for weed management in strawberries were evaluated. Wheat (Triticum aestevum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) were grown in individual pots then killed by tillage or herbicide and followed in the same pots by plantings of bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.], or strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa `Cardinal'). Rye and wheat tilled into the medium generally increased the growth of strawberries and decreased the growth of bermuda grass. Rye and wheat residues appeared to suppress growth of weeds and strawberries when the residues remained on the medium surface. Crimson clover had little affect on the growth of weeds or strawberries. Yellow nutsedge and crabgrass were not significantly affected by cover crop residues.

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P.H. Dernoeden and M.A. Fidanza

Fenoxaprop is used on turfgrasses to control smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Sweib.) Schreb. ex Muhl.] and other annual grass weeds. Our objective was to determine if a broadleaf weed herbicide (BWH = 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba) would affect fenoxaprop activity. The BWH was applied several days or weeks before and after fenoxaprop was applied. Smooth crabgrass control by fenoxaprop was reduced significantly when the BWH was applied ≤14 days before fenoxaprop was applied. Extremely poor crabgrass control occurred when fenoxaprop was tank-mixed with the BWH. There was no reduction in crabgrass control when the BWH was applied 21 days before or ≥3 days after fenoxaprop. Chemical names used: ethyl ester of (±)-2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fenoxaprop); 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D); (+)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (mecoprop); 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba).

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R.J. Cooper, P.C. Bhowmik, and L.A. Spokas

Field experiments were conducted to determine the response of five widely used Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars (Adelphi, Baron, Bensun, Merion, and Touchdown) to preemergence applications of the herbicide pendimethalin. Pendimethalin applied during 2 years at 1.7 or 3.4 kg·ha-1 (a.i.) controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig.) Schreb. ex Muhl.] effectively without injury to turf. Pendimethalin at 3.4 kg·ha-1 resulted in a short-term suppression of root growth immediately following application in the first year of the study. The reduction was transitory and subsequent rooting and rhizome growth were unaffected by pendimethalin. Cultivar × pendimethalin level interactions were not significant during the study. Thus, the herbicide appears to be a safe, effective preemergence material for crabgrass control in Kentucky bluegrass turf. Chemical name used: N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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P.H. Dernoeden and M.J. Carroll

In this field study, five preemergence and two postemergence herbicides were evaluated for their ability to hasten Meyer zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) sod development when sod was established from the regrowth of rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris. Herbicide influence on zoysiagrass re-establishment was examined using two postharvest field preparation procedures as follows: area I was raked to remove most above-ground sod debris, whereas in adjacent area II sod debris was allowed to remain in place. Herbicides that controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] generally enhanced zoysiagrass cover by reducing weed competition. Meyer established from rhizomes, sod strips, and loosened plant debris, and treated with herbicides, had a rate of sod formation equivalent to that expected in conventionally tilled, planted, and irrigated Meyer sod fields. Effective smooth crabgrass control was achieved when the rates of most preemergence herbicides were reduced in the 2nd year. Chemical names used: dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); 3,5,-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-[difluromethyl]-4-[2-methyl-propyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)∼S,S-dimethyl ester (dithiopyr); [±]-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-[1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine(pendimethalin);N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-[trifluromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); and 3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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Barbara R. Bingaman and Nick E. Christians

Corn (Zea mays L.) gluten meal (CGM) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for efficacy on 22 selected monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species. Corn gluten meal was applied at 0, 324, 649, and 973 g·m–2 and as a soil-surface preemergence (PRE) and preplant-incorporated (PPI) weed control product. CGM reduced plant survival, shoot length, and root development of all tested species. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), curly dock (Rumex crispus L.), purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were the most susceptible species. Plant survival and root development for these species were reduced by ≥75%, and shoot length was decreased by >50% when treated PRE and PPI with 324 g CGM/m2. Catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.), and smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl] exhibited survival and shoot length reductions >50% and an 80% reduction in root development when treated with PPI CGM at 324 g·m–2. Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.] and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) were the least susceptible species showing survival reductions ≤31% when treated with 324 g CGM/m2.

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S. Alan Walters*, Scott A. Nolte, Joseph L. Matthews, and Bryan G. Young

A field study was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to evaluate various herbicides (ethafluralin & clomazone, halosulfuron, and ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron) with or without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop in no-tillage `Daytona' cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) production. All herbicides were applied preplant prior to cucumber transplanting, and no injury or stunting to cucumber was observed with any of the treatments evaluated at any time during the two growing seasons. Winter rye provided a significant advantage for weed control compared to the no cover crop production system. The combination of ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron provided the greatest control of smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. Ex Schweig) Schreb. Ex Muhl.] and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Ethafluralin & clomazone provided little redroot pig-weed control, while halosulfuron alone provided no control of smooth crabgrass. Winter rye enhanced cucumber yields in 2002 (drought conditions), while in 2003 (sufficient moisture and cooler soil temperatures), winter rye tended to suppress yields. During drought conditions (2002), treatments with ethafluralin & clomazone and ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron produced similar yields. However, in 2003, treatments with ethafluralin & clomazone + halosulfuron produced greater yields than treatments with ethafluralin & clomazone. Overall, the handweed treatment provided the greatest yields, while the non-treated and halosulfuron only treatment provided the lowest yields. Winter rye will provide some additional weed control in a no-tillage vegetable production system, but may also provide negative effects by suppressing crop yield depending on seasonal growing conditions.

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P.H. Demoeden, M.J. Mahoney, and M.J. Carroll

Fenoxaprop (0.027, 0.036, and 0.045 kg·ha-1) was field-applied at either of 2-, 3-, or 4-week intervals to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) naturally infested with smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.] in Maryland (Easton and Silver Spring) during 1989 and 1990. In 1989, fenoxaprop applied at 2- or 3-week intervals at 0.027 kg·ha-1 provided fair (>74%) to good (>80%) smooth crabgrass control. Fenoxaprop applied at 0.036 or 0.045 kg·ha-1 at 2- or 3week intervals provided good to excellent (> 90%) smooth crabgrass control. Four-week intervals generally provided control that was inferior to the shorter application intervals at Silver Spring but not at Easton. In 1990, all rates provided good to excellent smooth crabgrass control when applied at 2- or 3-week intervals in Easton. At Silver Spring, where smooth crabgrass levels were very high, >88% control was provided by 0.036 kg·ha-1 applied at a 2-week interval and by 0.045 kg·ha-1 applied at either a 2- or 3-week interval. Chemical name used: [±]-2-[4-[(6 chloro-2 benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoic acid (fenoxaprop).

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S. Alan Walters, Scott A. Nolte, and Bryan G. Young

The influence of `Elbon', `Maton', and `Wheeler' winter rye (Secale cereale) with or without herbicide treatments on weed control in no-tillage (NT) zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) was determined. `Elbon' or `Maton' produced higher residue biomass, greater soil coverage, and higher weed control compared with `Wheeler'. Although winter rye alone did not provide sufficient weed control (generally <70%), it provided substantially greater redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) control (regardless of cultivar used) compared with no winter rye at both 28 and 56 days after transplanting (DAT). No effect (P > 0.05) of winter rye cultivar on early or total squash yield was detected. Although applying clomazone + ethalfluralin to winter rye residues improved redroot pigweed control compared with no herbicide, the level of control was generally not adequate (<85% control) by 56 DAT. Treatments that included halosulfuron provided greater control of redroot pigweed than clomazone + ethalfluralin, and redroot pigweed control from halosulfuron treatments was similar to the weed-free control. However, regardless of year or cover crop, any treatment with halosulfuron caused unacceptable injury to zucchini squash plants which lead to reduced squash yield (primarily early yields). Insignificant amounts of squash injury (<10% due to stunting) resulted from clomazone + ethalfluralin in no-tillage plots during either year. Treatments with clomazone + ethalfluralin had early and total yields that were similar to those of the weed-free control, although this herbicide combination provided less weed control compared with the weed-free control.