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S.H. Jalikop and Ravindra Kumar

Six of 120 species of Annona have pomological significance. Cherimoya ( A. cherimola Mill.), sugar apple ( A. squamosa L.), and the hybrid between the two, atemoya, which has been assigned horticultural species status ( A. atemoya Hort.), are

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Catherine M. Ronning, Raymond J. Schnell, and Shmuel Gazit

The native American genus Annona contains many species that are cultivated in the tropics and subtropics for their edible fruit, including the custard apple (A. reticulata), soursop (A. muricata), cherimoya (A. cherimola), sugar apple (A. squamosa), and the interspecific hybrid, Atemoya. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (KAPD) analysis of the A. cherimola cultivars `Jete' and `Campa, 1A. squamosa `Lessard', and the Atemoya cultivars `Ubranitzki', `Mallali', and `Kaspi' resulted in very distinctive patterns, indicating that RAPD markers are an easy, efficient method of fingerprinting Annona species. Thirteen of 15 primers gave repeatable, polymorphic patterns. An F1 population of `Jete' × `Lessard' as well as selfed populations of `Jete' and of `Lessard' were analyzed to determine the inheritance of the KAPD banding patterns. The results indicate that PAPD analysis can be used in genetic and phylogenetic studies of Annona species.

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Jonathan H. Crane, Pollyana Cardoso Chagas, and Edvan Alves Chagas

siblings. After selection, the cultivar was grafted onto sugar apple seedling rootstocks ( Annona squamosa L.) by the full-slit method and evaluated under the edaphoclimatic conditions of Miami–Dade County (lat. 25°30'40.809"N, long. 80°30'3.983"W) ( Fig

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Thomas E. Marler and Grace B. Paloma

Container-grown Annona muricata seedlings were bare-rooted and re-potted in sand. Containers were irrigated daily with a complete nutrient solution adjusted to a pH of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8, and the seedlings were grown for ≈5 months. Numerous growth variables were measured, including canopy volume, increase in mass, and trunk diameter. There were no differences in growth measurements among the pH levels. Moreover, leaf tissue was analyzed for mineral content. Leaf tissue concentration of various minerals did not differ among the pH levels. Annona muricata is known for growing well in a range of soil conditions. These data verify that the species is adapted to a wide range of substrate pH.

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C.M. Ronning, R.J. Schnell, and S. Gazit

The native American genus Annona contains many species that are cultivated for their edible fruit, including the custard apple (A. reticuluta L.), soursop (A. muricata L.), cherimoya (A. cherimola L.), sugar apple (A. squamosa L.), and interspecific hybrids, the atemoyas. RAPD analysis of A. cherimola. `Campa' and `Jete,' A. squamosa `Lessard,' and the atemoyas `Ubranitzki,' `Malali,' and `Kaspi' resulted in very distinctive patterns, indicating that RAPD markers, may be an efficient method of fingerprinting genotypes within and between Annona species. All 15 primers used generated repeatable, polymorphic patterns. An F1 population of `Jete' × `Lessard' was analyzed to determine the inheritance of the RAPD banding patterns. Fifty-two polymorphic loci were identified, which segregated in an expected Mendelian fashion.

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Maritza Ojeda, Bruce Schaffer, and Frederick S. Davies

Root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity in Annona glabra L. (pond apple), native to subtropical wetland habitats and Annona muricata L. (soursop), native to non-wetland tropical habitats, was determined under Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Four-month-old seedlings of each species were grown hydroponically in a complete nutrient solution containing 90 μm Fe or no Fe. The degree of tolerance of Fe deficiency was evaluated by measuring root FCR activity, chlorophyll and Fe concentration in recently matured leaves and plant growth. Root FCR activity was higher in soursop than in pond apple in the nutrient solution with Fe. However, there were no differences in root FCR activity between species under Fe-deficient conditions. Root FCR activity in pond apple and soursop was not induced in the absence of Fe. Leaf chlorophyll index and Fe concentration, and dry weights of pond apple were lower when plants were grown without Fe compared to plants grown with Fe. Leaves of pond apple grown without Fe became chlorotic within 3 weeks. Lack of Fe decreased the chlorophyll index and Fe concentration in young leaves less in soursop than in pond apple. In contrast, the Fe level in the nutrient solution had no effect on dry weights of soursop. The rapid development of leaf chlorosis and low FCR activity of pond apple may be due to its native origin in wetland areas where there is sufficient soluble Fe for plant growth and development.

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Thomas E. Marler and Yasmina Zozor

Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and mineral nutrient relations responses of Annona squamosa seedlings to mild salinity were studied in sand culture in five experiments during 1990, 1991, and 1993. Trees were irrigated with a complete nutrient solution (control) or with this solution amended to 3 or 6 dS·m-1 with sea salt. Inhibition of net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance of CO2, and transpiration was apparent within 2 weeks of initiating salinity treatments, and gas exchange continued to decline until day 30 to 35. The diurnal pattern of leaf gas exchange was not altered by increased salinity. Salinity reduced CO2, light energy, and water-use efficiencies. Salinity sometimes reduced the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence below that of the control, and this response was highly dependent on the ambient light conditions that preceded the measurements. Dark respiration was unaffected by salinity stress. Root zone salinity of 3 dS·m-1 administered for 52 days did not influence foliar sodium concentration or the ratio of sodium to potassium, but increased chloride concentration and decreased nitrogen concentration. The sodium response indicated that some form of exclusion or compartmentation occurred. Salinity reduced osmotic potential of root tissue but did not influence foliar osmotic or predawn xylem potential. These results indicate that A. squamosa is sensitive to salinity stress, and that the responses to salinity are consistent with other salt-sensitive woody perennial species.

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Teresa Muñoz, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Antonio D. Molina-García, María I. Escribano, and Carmen Merodio

Phophorous nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the vacuolar and cytoplasmic pH and the inorganic phosphate (Pi) pool distribution in `Fino de Jete' cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit stored at a chilling temperature (6 °C). Fruit stored at the ripening temperature (20 °C) for 3 days were used as a control. 31P-NMR results confirmed that 6 °C storage caused cytoplasmic acidosis (a decrease of 0.72 ± 0.08 pH units) and a notable increase in the amount of Pi in the cytoplasm. Spectra of perchloric acid extracts also revealed that storage at 6 °C was associated with an increase in the total amount of Pi and phosphorylated metabolites. Moreover, perfusion experiments with a phosphate medium confirmed the preferential accumulation of Pi in the cytoplasm in chilled tissues. Specific activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) (32.1 ± 1.7 μmol·min-1·mg-1) was observed in those fruit. In chilled fruit the amount of ADP was held at steady-state levels and ATP levels increased, contrary to observations for ripe fruit, where the pool of total nucleotides decreased beyond the point of NMR detection. Fruit stored at 6 °C exhibited a low respiration rate, but metabolism was not arrested and an increase in total soluble solid contents was also observed.

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Elias A. Moura, Pollyana C. Chagas, Edvan A. Chagas, Railin R. Oliveira, Raphael H. Siqueira, Daniel L.L. Taveira, Wellington F. Araújo, Maria R. Araújo, and Maria L. Grigio

Sugar apple ( Annona squamosa L.) has been the subject of several studies in recent years as a result of its nutritional, medicinal, and pharmaceutical properties. The most important study fields are agriculture, botany, pharmacology, and chemicals

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Danielle Rascoe, Kirk W. Pomper*, Jeremiah Lowe, Sheri B. Crabtree, Har Mahdeem, and Tejender S. Kochhar

The genus Asimina has the only temperate representatives of the tropical Annonaceae, or Custard Apple family, and includes eight species that are indigenous to North America. The North American pawpaw Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal has the largest edible fruit native to the United States and is the best-known of these species. The USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina species is located at Kentucky State Univ. (KSU); therefore, assessment of genetic diversity is an important research priority for KSU. The inter-simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR) methodology has been used successfully to characterize genetic diversity within and among populations of many plant species. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of ISSR markers in evaluating genetic relationships in members of the Asimina genus, as well as closely related tropical relatives in the Annona genus. Leaf samples were collected from three plants each of Asimina longifolia, A. obovata, A. parviflora, A. reticulata, A. tetramera and A. triloba. Leaf samples were also collected from three plants each of Annona cherimola, A. squamosa, A. reticulata, A. muricata, A. glabra, A. diversifolia, and A. montana. DNA was extracted from leaf samples and subjected to ISSR-PCR using the REDExtract-N-Amp™ Plant PCR Kit. DNA samples were screened with ISSR primers using the Univ. of British Columbia microsatellite primer set #9. Three primers, UBC812, UBC841, and UBC873 were found to produce 84 scorable ISSR markers and allowed the determination of genetic relationships among Asimina and Annona members examined.