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Thomas Gradziel, Bruce Lampinen, Franz Niederholzer, and Mario Viveros

premium roasting quality Spanish cultivar Marcona but with a much higher kernel-to-nut ratio. ‘Sweetheart’ shows good overlap with the economically important early bloom of ‘Nonpareil’ and possessing a cross-incompatibility controlling S-genotype of S 1 S

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Craig A. Ledbetter and Mark S. Sisterson

Dozens of cultivars have contributed to California's almond production, but the Nonpareil cultivar, selected in 1879, has consistently dominated California almond tonnage as a result of its excellent kernel characteristics and horticultural

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Dale E. Kester, Warren C. Micke, and Mario Viveros

`Jeffries', a mutant of `Nonpareil' almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb], showed “unilateral incompatibility” in that its pollen failed to fertilize cultivars in the `Carmel' (CIG-V), `Monterey' (CIG-VI), and `Sonora' (CIG-VII) pollen cross-incompatibility groups (CIGs), as well as specific cultivars (`Butte', `Grace', and `Valenta') whose CIG group is unknown. `Jeffries' is not self-compatible, but produced good set when pollinated by 12 almond cultivars representing the entire range of CIGs involving `Nonpareil' parentage, as well as the parent `Nonpareil'. It was concluded that the `Jeffries' mutant—both gametophyte and sporophyte—expressed a loss of a single S allele of the `Nonpareil' genotype.

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Thomas Gradziel and Bruce Lampinen

cultivar Nonpareil, and is being released as a pollenizer for ‘Nonpareil’. ‘Kester’ kernels have a similar appearance to ‘Nonpareil’, but have a darker seedcoat. Trees have an upright spreading and open architecture that produce high yields with tolerance

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Lonnie C. Hendricks, Everett L. Younce, Warren C. Micke, and James Yeager

A rootstock comparison trial for almond was planted in sandy soil near Atwater, Calif., in Feb.1989. The study consisted of five replications of five trees each for six rootstocks, each with two cultivars. The rootstocks were `Nemaguard' peach, `Nemared' peach, `Hansen 536' peach × almond hybrid, `'Bright's hybrid' (peach × almond), `Halford' peach seedling, and `Lovell' peach seedling. Two cultivars, `Nonpareil' and `Carmel', were used with each rootstock. The accumulated kernel production from `Nonpareil' through the 1998 harvest was highest for trees on `Hansen 536', second highest for those on `Nemaguard', and third highest for trees on `Bright's Hybrid'. The accumulated kernel production from `Carmel' was greatest for trees on `Bright's Hybrid' and second highest for those on `Hansen 536'. The hybrids have produced the largest trees, as indicated by trunk circumference, for both `Nonpareil' and `Carmel'. The greater production of trees on the hybrid rootstocks over those on the peach seedling rootstocks was probably a result of their greater size and not that the trees on the hybrid rootstocks were inherently higher-yielding.

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Thomas M. Gradziel, Bruce Lampinen, Joseph H. Connell, and Mario Viveros

crosscompatible with all currently planted California almond cultivars, including the heavily planted cultivar ‘Nonpareil’. ‘Winters’ shows very good bloom overlap with the economically important early ‘Nonpareil’ bloom. Trees have an upright and open architecture

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Thomas M. Gradziel

All of the major California almond varieties are self-incompatible necessitating the interplanting of pollinizer varieties. The incorporation of self-compatibility into the dominant variety Nonpareil through mutation or genetic engineering would greatly improve cropping efficiency. Negative effects of inbreeding on resultant seed and seedling quality could negate production advantages. Inbred seed of Nonpareil were obtained by: a) enclosing mature trees in pollination cages containing bees at flowering, and, b) controlled crosses to a Nonpareil mutation (Jeffries) which is unilaterally compatible when used as the seed parent. Selfed seed set from caged trees was less than 0.001% of available flowers. Seed set from crosses to the Jeffries mutation averaged 34.4% which was not significantly different than outcrossed controls. No significant loss in kernel weight and dimensions were observed in any of the inbred material when compared with outcrossed controls though a higher proportion of the inbred seed and seedlings failed to develop fully. Both average tree height and trunk diameter after 1 year of growth was significantly lower in inbred vs. outcrossed material. Results suggest no major penalty to kernel quality following self-pollination, though losses in progeny vigor should be a concern when utilizing selfed seed in variety development programs.

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Wilbur Reil, Gordon Mitchell, and Gene Mayer

Nursery grown and budded one year old .8 cm `Nonpareil' almond trees were placed bareroot in sealed containers at 2°C and subjected to concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5% CO2, 0, 0.5, 1, 2 μl·l-1 C2 H2, or combinations of both gases. All trials were conducted under 100% R. H. and constant air flow. Trees were removed after 10 or 20 weeks and then grown in 19 1. containers for approximately 12 weeks before grading.

Growth was the same for all concentrations of CO2 after 10 weeks but caused a 20 and 32% decrease in shoot growth at 3 and 5% concentrations after 20 weeks. C2H4 caused 34, 34 and 89% decrease after 10 weeks and 78, 83 and 100% decrease of shoot growth after 20 weeks. Root growth was also seriously decreased.

C2H4 caused no growth decrease after 10 weeks when 3 or 5% CO2 was present. After 20 weeks CO2 only partially offset the detrimental effect of C2H4.

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Vahid Rahimi Eichi, Stephen D. Tyerman, and Michelle G. Wirthensohn

comparison with other nut crops grown in Mediterranean climates, almond trees are relatively more drought-resistant. For this study we used five almond breeding lines. These genotypes mostly included the progenies of ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Carmel’, which are the

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Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Theodore M. DeJong, Yann Guédon, and Evelyne Costes

using the hidden semi-Markov models. ‘Nonpareil’ is the most important cultivar in California ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011 ). This cultivar has consistent and high productivity, bearing on both spurs and long shoots ( Asai et al., 1996 ). The