-fleshed. Carotenoid pigments provide OFSP storage roots the orange flesh color. More than 60 mg total carotenoids in 100 g DM have been reported ( Woolfe, 1992 ). A constant high proportion (≈90%) of β-carotene in relation to total carotenoids in OFSP has been known
Silver Tumwegamire, Regina Kapinga, Patrick R. Rubaihayo, Don R. LaBonte, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Gabriela Burgos, Thomas zum Felde, Rosemary Carpio, Elke Pawelzik, and Robert O.M. Mwanga
Nan Wang, Shi Liu, Peng Gao, Feishi Luan, and Angela R. Davis
., 2004 ; Van Breemen and Pajkovic, 2008 ). In addition, lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that reduces the risk of coronary heart disease ( Berman et al., 2015 ; Rao and Agarwal, 2000 ). As the most potent dietary precursor of vitamin A, β-carotene is
Jack E. Staub, Philipp W. Simon, and Hugo E. Cuevas
The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, released the high β-carotene cucumber ( Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 in Jan. 2011. Line EOM 402-10 was made available to U.S. cucumber breeders to supply a
Marisa M. Wall, Cynthia A. Waddell, and Paul W. Bosland
The β-carotene and total carotenoid content of either fresh or dried tissue of fruits of a total of 57 cultivars of six Capsicum species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). β-Carotene levels in ripe fruit varied from 0 to 166 μg·g-1 fresh weight, and carotenoid levels were from 1 to 896 μg·g-1 in ripe fruit in 1996. The range of values for β-carotene was similar in 1997, but that for total carotenoids was wider (4 to 1173 μg·g-1 fresh weight). Fresh fruit of the cultivars Greenleaf Tabasco, Pulla, Guajillo, NuMex Conquistador, Ring-O-Fire, and Thai Dragon contained greater amounts of β-carotene per 100 g fresh weight than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin A for the average adult. For dried Capsicum entries, New Mexican, aji, pasilla, and ancho types had the highest levels of β-carotene. In 1996, β-carotene levels among the dried Capsicum germplasm ranged from 2 to 739 μg·g-1 dry weight, and carotenoid levels from 111 to 6226 μg·g-1. Values were higher in 1997, ranging from 24 to 1198 μg·g-1 dry weight for β-carotene and from 187 to 10,121 μg·g-1 for total carotenoids. A pasilla type (C. annuum L.) had the highest total carotenoid content among the dried entries in both years.
Marisa Wall, Cynthia Waddell, Paul Bosland, and Stephanie Walker
The β-carotene and total carotenoid content of different Capsicum fruit types and species were analyzed using HPLC. This information is useful for breeding high carotenoid chiles (New Mexican type) for the food industry, and also provides nutritional data for the range of fruit types within the Capsicum genus. Fresh fruit from 25 accessions and dried fruit from 39 accessions were evaluated in 1996 and 1997. β-carotene levels varied from 0 to 16.6 mg/100 g fresh weight, and carotenoid levels were from 0.1 to 89.6 mg/100 g in red ripe fruit in 1996. The range of values for β-carotene was similar in 1997, but a wider range in total carotenoids (0.4 to 117.3 mg/100 g fresh weight) was observed. Fresh fruit (100 g) of the cultivars `Greenleaf Tabasco', `Pulla', `Guajillo', `NuMex Conquistador', `Ring-O-Fire', and `Thai Dragon' contained greater amounts of β-carotene than the RDA for vitamin A for the average adult. For dried Capsicum entries, New Mexican, aji, pasilla, ancho, and guajillo types had the highest levels of β-carotene. In 1996, β-carotene levels among the dried Capsicum germplasm ranged from 0 to 739.2 μg/g dry weight, and carotenoid levels were from 21.3 to 6,225.9 μg/g. Values were higher in 1997, and ranged from 23.7 to 1,198.1 μg/g dry weight for β-carotene and from 76.9 to 10,120.6 μg/g for total carotenoids. A pasilla type (C. annuum) had the highest total carotenoid content among the dried entries in both years.
Dean A. Kopsell, David E. Kopsell, Mark G. Lefsrud, Joanne Curran-Celentano, and Laura E. Dukach
Green leafy vegetables are important sources of dietary carotenoids, and members of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala rank highest for reported levels of lutein and β-carotene. Twenty-three leafy B. oleracea cultigens were field grown under similar fertility over two separate years and evaluated for leaf lutein and β-carotene accumulation. Choice of B. oleracea cultigen and year significantly affected carotenoid levels. Lutein concentrations ranged from a high of 13.43 mg per 100 g fresh weight (FW) for B. oleracea var. acephala `Toscano' to a low of 4.84 mg/100 g FW for B. oleracea var. acephala 343-93G1. β-carotene accumulations ranged from a high of 10.00 mg/100 g FW for B. oleracea var. acephala `Toscano' to a low of 3.82 mg/100 g FW for B. oleracea var. acephala 30343-93G1. Carotenoid concentrations were significantly higher in year 2 than in year 1, but rank order among the cultigens for both lutein and ß-carotene did not change between the years. During each year, there were high correlations between leaf carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments. Under similar growing conditions, choice of B. oleracea cultigen will influence carotenoid accumulation, and this may affect the health benefits of consuming these leafy green vegetable crops.
Kevin M. Crosby, John L. Jifon, and Daniel I. Leskovar
) support. Under the “Designing Foods for Health” grant (CSREES 2001-34402-10543, 2003-34402-13647), the program has selected, for genetically enhanced levels of beneficial phytochemicals such as β-carotene as well as total sugars within TAES, commercially
Thomas C. Koch* and Irwin L. Goldman
Carotenoids (provitamin A) and tocopherols (vitamin E) are powerful antioxidants in plants and in the human diet. Carrot (Daucus carota) has been selected for increased levels of carotenoids, contributing to its orange color and reported health benefits. Selection for increased tocopherol has shown success in seed oils, but little progress has been made in the edible portions of most vegetable crops. HPLC measurement following a simultaneous heptane extraction of both compounds has shown a significant (P ≤ 0.001) positive correlation of α-tocopherol with α-carotene (r = 0.65) and β-carotene (r = 0.52). To increase both the tocopherols and carotenoids in plants, 3 populations have been established from select open-pollinated varieties grown in 2002. These populations consist of half-sib families with these differing selection schemes: based strictly on increased α-tocopherol levels; an index to increase α-carotene, β-carotene and α-tocopherol; and a random population in which no selection is occurring. After one cycle of selection, populations were grown on muck soil during the summer of 2003. Compared with the random population, an increase of 24.68% in α-tocopherol concentration was recorded for the population selected strictly on α-tocopherol while increases of 8.47% in α-tocopherol, 9.31% in α-carotene and 7.31% in β-carotene were recorded for the population with index selection. The continuation of these carrot populations shows promise to produce carrot germplasm with improved human nutritive value.
Mason T. MacDonald, Rajasekaran R. Lada, A. Robin Robinson, and Jeff Hoyle
found principally in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. The majority of carotenoids are derived from a 40-carbon polyene chain and may be ended with cyclic or oxygen-containing functional groups. Hydrocarbon carotenoids such as β-carotene or
Jennifer Bonina-Noseworthy, J. Brent Loy, Joanne Curran-Celentano, Rebecca Sideman, and Dean A. Kopsell
subdivided into two groups, hydrocarbons (carotenes) and the more polar xanthophylls or hydroxy-containing carotenoids, the latter often esterified to fatty acids. Carotenes, chiefly α-carotene and β-carotene, and the xanthophyll, β-cryptoxanthin, are