Carotenoids (provitamin A) and tocopherols (vitamin E) are powerful antioxidants in plants and in the human diet. Carrot (Daucus carota) has been selected for increased levels of carotenoids, contributing to its orange color and reported health benefits. Selection for increased tocopherol has shown success in seed oils, but little progress has been made in the edible portions of most vegetable crops. HPLC measurement following a simultaneous heptane extraction of both compounds has shown a significant (P ≤ 0.001) positive correlation of α-tocopherol with α-carotene (r = 0.65) and β-carotene (r = 0.52). To increase both the tocopherols and carotenoids in plants, 3 populations have been established from select open-pollinated varieties grown in 2002. These populations consist of half-sib families with these differing selection schemes: based strictly on increased α-tocopherol levels; an index to increase α-carotene, β-carotene and α-tocopherol; and a random population in which no selection is occurring. After one cycle of selection, populations were grown on muck soil during the summer of 2003. Compared with the random population, an increase of 24.68% in α-tocopherol concentration was recorded for the population selected strictly on α-tocopherol while increases of 8.47% in α-tocopherol, 9.31% in α-carotene and 7.31% in β-carotene were recorded for the population with index selection. The continuation of these carrot populations shows promise to produce carrot germplasm with improved human nutritive value.
Thomas C. Koch* and Irwin L. Goldman
Jennifer Bonina-Noseworthy, J. Brent Loy, Joanne Curran-Celentano, Rebecca Sideman, and Dean A. Kopsell
subdivided into two groups, hydrocarbons (carotenes) and the more polar xanthophylls or hydroxy-containing carotenoids, the latter often esterified to fatty acids. Carotenes, chiefly α-carotene and β-carotene, and the xanthophyll, β-cryptoxanthin, are
Christine M. Bradish, Gad G. Yousef, Guoying Ma, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, and Gina E. Fernandez
flow rate of 1 mL·min −1 using a step gradient of 0 min, 90% A, 10% B; 24 min, 54% A, 35% B, 11% C; 35 min, 30% A, 35% B, 35% C; 43–58 min, 90% A, 10% B. Calibration curves were determined using external standards of α-carotene, β-carotene, 9-cis
Thomas C. Koch and Irwin L. Goldman
Carotenoids and tocopherols are health-functional phytochemicals that occur in a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops. These two classes of compounds are synthesized from a common precursor, geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate, and are typically analyzed separately via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Because carotenoids and tocopherols are present in many edible horticultural crops, it would be advantageous to measure them simultaneously in plant tissues. Herein we report a one-pass reverse-phase HPLC method for extraction and analysis of carotenoids and tocopherols in carrot that can be extended to other high-moisture plant organs. Elution times ranged from 5 minutes for α-tocopherol to 24 minutes for β-carotene. This method improves the efficiency of analyzing these compounds by up to 50%, and should increase the efficiency of assessing carotenoid and tocopherol profiles in horticultural crops.
M. Nieves Criado, M. José Motilva, Tomás Ramo, and M. Paz Romero
The aim of this study was to monitor the pigment profile and chlorophyllase (Chlase) and lipoxygenase (Lox) activities of olive (Olea europaea L.) drupes during the development of the fruit from `Arbequina' and `Farga' in order to find better ways to characterize cultivars such as `Arbequina' that produce virgin olive oils that are highly appreciated in international markets. `Farga' was included as a comparative reference. The total pigment content in olive drupes from the two cultivars studied suffered a decrease when the maturation process began, the rate of chlorophyll degradation being more marked than that of the carotenoid pigment. Chlorophyllides a and b, cis-α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and esterified xanthophylls were detected only in `Arbequina' fruit. The behavior of the Chlase and Lox activities in both cultivars was different. Chlase activity in olives from `Farga' was detected only at the end of the pit hardening period, but in the case of `Arbequina' the presence of dephytilated chlorophyllic derivatives is directly related to a higher Chlase enzymatic activity than that of `Farga' fruit. Although the level of these enzymatic activities decreased when ripening advanced in both cultivars, in `Arbequina' both enzymes showed a slight increase of activity at the latest stages of ripening.
W.Y.L. Poon and I.L. Goldman
Carotenoids have been shown to be important both nutritionally and medicinally. Carotenoid accumulation was compared during growth and storage of four carrot genotypes: YY y1y1y2y2RPRP, yyY1 Y1Y2Y2 RPRP, YY Y1 Y1Y2Y2 RPRP, and rprp. These genotypes exhibit orange, yellow, white, and pale-orange roots respectively. The orange and pale-orange genotypes are near-isogenic for rp, a gene that reduces total carotenoid content by 93%. Genotypes were grown in replicated field plots during 1996 and stored for 8 months at 4°C. Samples of root tissue were removed at 7-day intervals during vegetative growth and 4-week intervals during the postharvest period. Total carotenoid content were quantified using HPLC and spectrophotometric analyses. Increases in carotenoid content of 119% and 79% in rprp and YY y1y1y2y2RPRP and decreases of 6% and 64% in YYY1 Y1Y2Y2RPRP and yyY1 Y1Y2Y2RPRP, respectively, were measured between 62 and 100 days after planting. At 100 days after planting, YY y1y1y2y2RPRP exhibited 10-fold greater carotenoid content than rprp. Carotenoid content in yyY1 Y1Y2Y2RPRP and YY y1y1y2y2RPRP increased during the first 28 days of storage and decreased subsequently. Meanwhile, rprp began to decrease in carotenoid content at day 14 of storage. HPLC analysis at l = 445 nm revealed two large unique peaks in rprp with elution times of 27 and 28.7 minutes that were of lesser abundance in YY y1y1y2y2RPRP, suggesting that the rate of β- and α-carotene accumulation is not the only difference between YY y1y1y2y2RPRP and rprp.
Rachel A. Itle and Eileen A. Kabelka
/WHO, 2002 ; Murkovic and Neunteufl, 2002 ). In vegetables, common provitamin A carotenoids include β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin ( ODS/NIH, 2006 ). Other common carotenoids such as lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin do not have vitamin A
Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis, and Philipp W. Simon
-qPCR analysis, and for content of α-carotene, β-carotene, phytoene, lycopene, and lutein from HPLC (α = 0.05). All statistical analyses were performed using the R statistics program ( R Development Core Team, 2011 ). Results RT-qPCR was used to quantify
Xianzhi Zhou, Yufen Wu, Sheng Chen, Yang Chen, Weiguang Zhang, Xintao Sun, and Yijie Zhao
chronic diseases ( Alves-Rodrigues and Shao, 2004 ; Chuwers et al., 1997 ; Gaziano et al., 1995 ; Johnson, 2002 ; Rao and Rao, 2007 ; Slattery et al., 2000 ). In addition, women with higher circulating levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein plus
Saki Toshima, Marika Fujii, Momoko Hidaka, Soya Nakagawa, Tomonari Hirano, and Hisato Kunitak
those of pure standards of lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene. The results are expressed as micrograms per 100 g FW. The measurement of sample extracts was replicated three times. Statistical analysis. All experimental results