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Lauren C. Garner, Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Michael T. Clegg, and Carol J. Lovatt

established in a few of the Israeli studies and were often cultivar dependent ( Degani et al., 1989 , 1990 , 1997 ). Under California growing conditions, correlations between outcrossing rates and yields of ‘Hass’, the current industry standard worldwide

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Cristina Pisani, Mark A. Ritenour, Ed Stover, Anne Plotto, Rocco Alessandro, David N. Kuhn, and Raymond J. Schnell

temperatures. These avocados have a rough, leathery exocarp but the edible mesocarp portion has smooth texture with high oil content, up to 30% for some cultivars; the predominant cultivar on the market, ‘Hass’, is of this type ( Barmore, 1976 ; Gibson, 1984

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James D. Oster, D.E. Stottlmyer, and M.L. Arpaia

Drip irrigation for avocados was first experimentally introduced into California from Israel in the late 1960s ( Gustafson, 1976 ). Gustafson et al. (1979) compared drip irrigation of ‘Hass’ avocado on Mexican seedling rootstock with the then

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Raymond J. Schnell, Cecile L. Tondo, J. Steven Brown, David N. Kuhn, Tomás Ayala-Silva, James W. Borrone, and Thomas L. Davenport

) estimated outcrossing using 10 6-year-old ‘Hass’ trees in a commercial grove in California with a single fully informative microsatellite marker. Outcrossing rates were found not to be related to yield or alternate bearing. ‘Hass’ is the most important

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Samuel Salazar-García, Luis E. Cossio-Vargas, Isidro J.L. González-Durán, and Carol J. Lovatt

The ‘Hass’ avocado is grown in the state of Michoacán at altitudes from 1200 to 2400 m above sea level (MASL) under various microclimates, resulting in avocados that can be harvested throughout the year ( Aguilera-Montañez and Salazar-García, 1991

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Raquel Enedina Medina-Carrillo, Samuel Salazar-García, Jorge Armando Bonilla-Cárdenas, Juan Antonio Herrera-González, Martha Elva Ibarra-Estrada, and Arturo Álvarez-Bravo

., 2015 ). In ‘Hass’ avocado fruit, the highest PC concentration was present in the exocarp (skin), probably because of the exposure of this tissue to stress conditions ( Tesfay et al., 2010 ). In smooth-bark Mexican pine ( Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.) and

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Etaferahu Takele, Jewell L. Meyer, Mary L. Arpaia, David E. Stottlemyer, and Guy W. Witney

The effect of integrated applications of various irrigation and fertilization rates on productivity (yield and size) and returns of the `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) have been analyzed from 1987 to 1991 in western Riverside County. Eighteen treatment combinations comprised of three irrigation levels [80%, 100%, and 120% crop water use (ETc)], three N fertilizer levels (0.16, 0.7, and 1.4 kg/tree per year), and Zn (0 and 0.2 kg/tree per year) were included in the analysis. Using a partial budgeting procedure, returns after costs were calculated for each treatment combination. Costs of treatments, harvesting, hauling, and marketing were subtracted from the value of the crop. The value of the crop was calculated as the sum of crop returns in each size category. Three years of data on the relationship between irrigation and N showed 1) irrigating at 80% ETc would be ineffective even at very high water prices; 2) for groves where 100% ETc is sufficient, its application with either low or medium N would be beneficial; and 3) at higher irrigation (120% ETc), N application should be at or beyond the medium level.

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Samuel Salazar-García, Isidro J.L. González-Durán, and Martha E. Ibarra-Estrada

graph are different (i.e., % or mg·kg −1 ); therefore, the variations in performance of all the nutrients on one single graph cannot be accurately appreciated. In the state of Nayarit, ‘Hass’ avocado is cultivated without irrigation (rainfed) and

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Pablo Rodriguez, Juan Camilo Henao, Guillermo Correa, and Ana Aristizabal

For the past few years, the cultivation of ‘Hass’ avocado in Colombia has resulted in an increase in fruit production and export to the United States and European markets, primarily to the Netherlands, England, and Spain. According to the

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Lauren C. Garner and Carol J. Lovatt

excessive. Clearly, a strategy to reduce the abscission of reproductive structures would increase avocado yield. The reproductive phenology of many avocado cultivars, including ‘Hass’, is further characterized by alternate bearing. Alternate bearing is a