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S.R. Drake, D.C. Elfving, M.A. Drake, T.A. Eisele, S.L. Drake, and D.B. Visser

This study was conducted over two crop seasons using `Scarletspur Delicious' and `Gale Gala' apple trees (Malus ×domestica). The bioregulators aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), ethephon (ETH), and 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) were applied at various times before or after harvest. Fruit response was evaluated at harvest and after regular atmosphere (RA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage [2.0% oxygen (O2) and <2.0% carbon dioxide (CO2) at 0 °C] and quality of whole and juice apple products evaluated. AVG reduced starch loss and ethylene production, enhanced firmness, and reduced cracking in `Gale Gala,' but reduced sensory acceptance of apples and apple juice. ETH intensified starch loss, ethylene production, and reduced firmness, but did not affect `Gale Gala' fruit cracking. AVG followed by ETH reduced starch loss, ethylene production, and cracking and maintained firmness. This combination also aided in sensory acceptance of apples but reduced sensory preference of apple juice. Exposure to postharvest MCP improved flesh firmness retention and reduced ethylene production after both RA and CA storage. MCP either favored or reduced sensory acceptance of whole apples, depending on the particular season, but reduced sensory preference of apple juice. Sensory scores for `Scarletspur Delicious' apples were more strongly modified by bioregulators than were `Gale Gala' apples.

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Steven J. McArtney and John D. Obermiller

Gala’: Expts. 1 to 3 A planting of mature GaleGala’/M.9 trees at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center (MHCREC) in Mills River, NC, was used for thinning experiments in three consecutive years (2010–12). Trees that were

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V.R. Bommineni, H. Mathews, S.B. Samuel, M. Kramer, and D.R. Wagner

Improved in vitro clonal propagation methods are valuable tools for nurseries and growers, and are essential for manipulation and improvement of tree fruit germplasm using the tools and techniques of biotechnology. We have developed a rapid shoot multiplication procedure for clonal propagation of apple, Malus ×domestica cv. Gale Gala and pear, Pyrus communis L. cv. Bartlett. Rapid clonal multiplication was achieved after the following series of steps: pre-conditioning of micropropagated shoots, sectioning pre-treated stems into thin slices, placing slices onto shoot induction medium and incubating directly under cool-white fluorescent lights or after a brief dark incubation. Multiple induction of shoots recovered from stem slice explants within three weeks of culture. A maximum of 37% of cultured apple stem slices, and 97% of pear stem slices, showed induction of shoots. More shoots were recovered on phytagel solidified shoot induction medium than on agar. Cultured stem slices of both apple and pear showed maximum recovery of shoots from shoot induction medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) compared to medium supplemented with BAP and kinetin. Under ideal conditions, pear stems generated four times the shoots as the same quantity or length of apple shoots. Micropropagated shoots were rooted and transferred to the greenhouse and field nursery for further evaluation. Chemical names used: N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron or TDZ); 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP).

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`Scarletspur Delicious' and `Gale Gala' (Drake et al., p. 16 ) . AVG enhanced firmness retention and storability, and eliminated fruit cracking in `Gale Gala'. Ethephon enhanced fruit color, soluble solids, and sensory acceptance, but reduced firmness. Fruit

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Eric A. Curry, Carolina Torres, and Luis Neubauer

observation). If symptoms are detected before shipment, there are often significant repacking costs; if undetected, the negative impact on repeat sales can be lasting. Fig. 1. Lenticel breakdown (LB) disorder on ‘Gale Gala’ (A), ‘Golden Delicious’ (B), ‘Royal

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Huicong Wang and Lailiang Cheng

degradation relative to the skin pigmentation in ‘Gala’ apple. Materials and Methods Plant material and nitrogen treatments. Seven-year-old ‘Gale Gala’/M.26 trees were grown in 55-L black plastic pots in acid-washed sand (pH 6.2) at a spacing of 1.07 × 3.35 m

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Jia Li, Liyun Liu, Huanqi Zhou, and Meng Li

Jing Ke Xue 35 394 400 Liu, B.H. Cheng, L. Ma, F.W. Liang, D. Zou, Y.J. 2012 Influence of rootstock on drought response in young ‘Gale Gala’ apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) trees J. Sci. Food Agr. 92 2421 2427 Liu, M.H. Yi, L.T. Yu, S.Q. Yu, F. Yin, X

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Georgia Ntatsi, Dimitrios Savvas, Georgia Ntatsi, Hans-Peter Kläring, and Dietmar Schwarz

239 Liu, B.H. Cheng, L. Ma, F.W. Liang, D. Zou, Y.J. 2012 Influence of rootstock on drought response in young ‘Gale Gala’ apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) trees J. Sci. Food Agr. 92 2421 2427 Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Lu, J. Shao, H. 2009 Roles of plant soluble

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Ksenija Gasic, John E. Preece, and David Karp

, diameter ∼ 7.0 cm; round conical; color intense, striped; lower acidity and earlier season than Gale Gala, Banning Gala, and Simmons Gala; flesh crisp, juicy, melting; ripens early August in Wenatchee. Tree: blooms with Banning Gala; vigor moderate