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Esmaeil Fallahi, W. Michael Colt, Bahar Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun

Tree fruit rootstocks are used to influence precocity, tree size, fruit quality, yield efficiency, mineral uptake, and to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the history and literature of apple (Malus domestica) rootstocks and their effects on scion tree growth, yield, fruit quality, leaf mineral nutrition, and photosynthesis. Then, the results of our long-term study on the effects of rootstocks on tree growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral nutrition, and one season of photosynthesis measurement in `BC-2 Fuji' will be presented and discussed. In this study, `Fuji' trees on `Malling 9 NAKBAT337' (M.9) rootstock had the smallest trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), highest yield efficiency, and were the most precocious followed by those on `East Malling-Long Ashton 26' (M.26 EMLA) and `East Malling-Long Ashton 7' (M.7 EMLA). Trees on M.7 EMLA often had larger fruit with less color than those on M.9 and M.26 EMLA. Trees on M.7 EMLA frequently had greater leaf K than those on other rootstocks. Trees on M.26 EMLA always had greater leaf Mg than those on other rootstocks. Leaves from the current terminal shoots (CTS) of trees on M.9 had higher net photosynthesis and transpiration than those on M.7 EMLA rootstock during 1998 growing season.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani

majority of highly colored strains are identified based on visual and/or physiological changes that occur on a limb of the original cultivar tree (limb mutations) such as ‘Gala’, ‘Delicious’, or ‘Fuji’. These mutants could show some reversions as a result

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Carolina A. Torres, Omar Hernandez, Maria A. Moya-León, Ivan Razmilic, and David R. Rudell

Schrader, 2012 ; Yuri et al., 2000b ). Climatic conditions in these regions can elevate photooxidative and heat stress throughout the growing season affecting the tree and fruit physiology. Skin browning or “stain” can develop on ‘Fuji’ apples during cold

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David A. Felicetti and Larry E. Schrader

to sunburn browning induction factors (e.g., sunlight and heat). This study focused on ‘Fuji’ sunburn degrees 0 to 4, with rating 5 omitted because it is a different type of sunburn. ‘Fuji’ apples were chosen for this study because they are

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Xue-Min Hou, Zi-Hua Wang, Xi-Min Deng, and Guo-Hui Li

method may lead to further understanding of the mechanism by which fruit grow and develop in relation to water status. Materials and Methods Mature fresh ‘Fuji’ apple fruit ( Malus × domestica ) were purchased from a local market in Oct. 2009. The flesh

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Qiang Zhang, Minji Li, Beibei Zhou, Junke Zhang, and Qinping Wei

and quality formation ( Melke and Fetene, 2014 ). Due to regional differences in climatic conditions and cultivation techniques, ‘Fuji’ apples in the two dominant production regions differ greatly in fruit size, appearance, color, and taste ( Feng et

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Preston K. Andrews and Margaret L. Collier

Effects of crop load and time of thinning on productivity of young `Fuji'/M.9 apple trees were tested by hand blossom (B) or fruit (F) thinning to two crop densities (fruit number/trunk cross-sectional area). Heavy (H) crop densities resulted in higher yields in both 2nd and 3rd leaf than light (L) crop densities. Time of thinning had no effect on yields in either year. In the 2nd leaf, fruit size was largest from trees B thinned to L crop densities, and smallest from trees F thinned to either crop density from mid-June through harvest. Both 1° and 2° vegetative growth were greatest in noncropped trees, intermediate in trees with L crops, and least in trees with H crops. Noncropped 2nd-1eaf trees had the highest flowering indices (flower clusters/100 total buds) the following spring and H cropped trees had the lowest. The flowering index was higher when trees were B thinned in the 2nd leaf than when F thinned. In the 3rd leaf, fruit size was largest when borne on weak upright shoots, intermediate on spurs, and smallest on 1-year-old terminal wood. Fruit on spurs had the highest incidence of sunscald (17%) and fruit on weak upright shoots the lowest (8%). Previous-season crop densities affected current-season's vegetative and fruit growth.

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Hisashi Yamada, Hirokazu Ohmura, Chizuru Arai, and Makoto Terui

The influence of controlling temperature during apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) maturation on sugars, fruit maturity, and watercore occurrence was investigated in watercore-susceptible `Himekami' and `Fuji' apples. The incidence of watercore at 13/5 and 23/15C was greater than at 33/25C or ambient temperatures in `Himekami' apples in 1991 and was greater at 18/10C than at other temperatures in `Fuji' apples in 1990. In 1992, the extent of watercore increased as fruit temperature decreased from 28 to 14C and 23 to 9C in `Himekami' and `Fuji' apples, respectively. Watercore occurrence affected by fruit temperature was not related to fruit maturity, as judged by ethylene evolution. The effect of fruit temperature on sorbitol was relatively small compared with that on other sugars, and no relationship was found between watercore development and sugars. These results suggest that fruit temperature affects watercore expression independently of fruit maturity or sorbitol metabolism in the fruit in watercore-susceptible apple cultivars.

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Jerneja Jakopič, Franci Štampar, and Robert Veberič

). Jakopic et al. (2007) demonstrated that light use of ‘Fuji’ apple trees grown under hail nets could be improved using reflective groundcover, resulting in better fruit coloration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of netting and

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester, Bahar Fallahi, and Shahla Mahdavi

), and three levels of girdling on growth, yield, and fruit quality attributes at harvest-time and leaf N status in ‘Aztec Fuji’ apple trees over the 2015 and 2016 seasons. Materials and Methods Orchard establishment and general cultural practices. The