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Sarah R. Sikkema, Nader Soltani, Peter H. Sikkema and Darren E. Robinson

'Sullivan, J. Sikkema, P. 2003 Sweet corn ( Zea mays ) cultivar sensitivity to AE F130360 Weed Technol. 17 127 132 Diebold, S. Robinson, D. Zandstra, J. O'Sullivan, J. Sikkema, P

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Nader Soltani, Peter H. Sikkema, John Zandstra, John O'Sullivan and Darren E. Robinson

Sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) is an important field-grown vegetable crop in Ontario; nearly 170,000 t of sweet corn are produced on 14,000 ha with a farm-gate value of $22.8 million ( Mailvaganam, 2006 ). Effective weed control is important for the

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Darren E. Robinson, Nader Soltani, Christy Shropshire and Peter H. Sikkema

Sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) production is important to the economy of Ontario where nearly 113,000 t of sweet corn are produced on nearly 10,000 ha annually [ Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), 2013 ]. In 2012, sweet

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R.J. Griesbach

The flavonoids from flowers of transgenic Petunia ×hybrida Vilm. plants containing the Al gene from Zea mays L. were characterized. The A1 gene encodes the enzyme dihydroflavonol reductase and was introduced into a mutant petunia defective for this gene. Control, nontransgenic plants produced flowers that contained ≈ 50 ng anthocyanin/100 mg tissue dry weight. Anthocyanin distribution was 63% cyanidin, 28% delphinidin, and 9% pelargonidin. In contrast, the transgenic plants produced flowers that contained ≈ 500 ng anthocyanin/100 mg tissue dry weight, with 34% as cyanidin, 12% as delphlnidin, and 54% as pelargonidin. The increase in anthocyanin production in the transgenic plants resulted in a corresponding molar decrease in flavonol accumulation.

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Jerald K. Pataky and Paul M. Richter

grasses: VIII. Pollen-tube guidance and the regulation of tube number in Zea mays L Acta Bot. Neerl. 34 193 211 Hoover, M.M. 1932 Inheritance studies of the reaction of selfed lines of maize to smut ( Ustilago zeae

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Tina Wilson, Robert Geneve and Brent Rowell

Mutant endosperm associated with shrunken-2 sweet corn possesses a high osmotic potential that increases the rate of imbibition. Membrane damage associated with the rapid influx of water during imbibition can play a role in the poor emergence and seedling vigor associated with sweet corn germination. Film-coating as a seed treatment has been used to improve germination and vigor in sweet corn. This improvement may be associated with alterations in the kinetics of imbibition. Two seed lots of shrunken-2 sweet corn, low-vigor `Even Sweeter' and high vigor `Sugar Bowl', were treated with a polymer film-coating and evaluated for differences in water uptake. Imbibition curves were established for nontreated and film-coated seeds. Seeds were weighed every hour for 6 hours and showed a significant difference between the two treatments in fresh weight for both cultivars. This pattern continues throughout the imbibition phase of germination and continues into the lag period. Bulk conductivity tests resulted in no significant mean difference between untreated and film treated seeds after 24 hours. Film treatment assumes characteristics of a hydrophilic polymer. Electrolyte leakage is not reduced and imbibition rate increases by 18% for both varieties of film-coated seeds.

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D.W. Davis, J.V. Groth, G.R. Gingera, W.M. Randle and C.A. Engelkes

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Tina Wilson, Robert Geneve and Brent Rowell

One possible influence film-coating may have on seeds is modifying water uptake and electrolyte leaking during imibibition. Film-coating is a seed treatment that can improve sweet corn germination, especially under cold soil conditions. Two shrunken-2 sweet corn varieties (`Even Sweeter' and `Sugar Bowl') were treated with a polymer film-coating and evaluated for water uptake patterns during imibibition. `Even Sweeter' is a low-vigor sweet corn, while `Sugar Bowl' is a high-vigor variety. Standard germination tests were performed according to AOSA rules and suggest film-coated seeds germinated at a slower rate than untreated seeds. After 4 days of imibibition, `Sugar Bowl' film-coated seeds had 5% germination, while untreated seeds had ≈20% germination. However, after 7 days, film-coated seeds had 94% germination with untreated seeds at 80% germination. Results were similar for `Even Sweeter'. Bulk electrical conductivity readings were taken over 24 h to determine the amount of electrolyte leakage during imibibition. Low-vigor `Even Sweeter' had 92% higher overall leakage than high-vigor `Sugar Bowl'. Additional conductivity readings were taken for both seed lots every 2 h for 12 h. Film-treated seeds leaked 15% less than untreated seeds for `Sugar Bowl'. However, `Even Sweeter' film-coated seeds actually leaked 17% more than the untreated seeds. In both cases, 70% of electrolyte leakage occurred within the first 12 h of imibibition. An imibibition curve was established for the two seed lots comparing untreated and film-coated seeds. During the first 6 h of water uptake, film-treated seeds weighed ≈50% more than the untreated seeds for both `Even Sweeter' and `Sugar Bowl'. Pathways for water uptake as influenced by film-coating shrunken-2 seeds will also be presented.

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Tina Wilson, Robert Geneve and Brent Rowell

Membrane damage associated with rapid influx of water during imbibition can play a role in the poor emergence and seedling vigor associated with sweet corn germination. Film-coating as a seed treatment has been used to improve germination and vigor in sweet corn and this improvement may not be associated with changes in imbibition rate. Two seed lots of shrunken-2 variety sweet corn, low-vigor `Even Sweeter' and high-vigor `Sugar Bowl', were treated with a hydrophilic polymer film-coating and evaluated for differences in emergence and water uptake. Both cultivars were grown at 19, 21, and 26 °C with no effect on emergence due to film-coating. Imbibition curves were established for untreated and hydrophilic film-coated seeds. Film-coated seeds showed an 18% increase in fresh weight compared to untreated seeds for both cultivars during a 6-h period. Bulk conductivity tests resulted in no significant mean difference between untreated and hydrophilic-treated seeds after 24 h. These seed lots have been treated with a hydrophobic polymer and are currently being evaluated for cold temperature emergence and imbibition rates. Water entry during imbibition will also be compared for untreated sugary (su) and shrunken-2 (sh2) seeds using the fluorescent compound trisodium salt, 8-hydroxypyrene-1, 3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS).

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Armando Campos Cruz, Douglas C. Scheuring and J. Creighton Miller Jr.

The effect of Biozyme™, a commercial germination stimulant, on emergence of bean and sweet corn seeds, treated with four levels of Carbofuran and Chlorothalonil, and grown under suboptimal field temperatures, was evaluated. Half the seeds from each treatment were treated with Biozyme™ Two planting dates were selected to provide suboptimal temperatures during emergence. Pesticide overdoses caused significant detrimental effects to all emerging seedlings. These effects were magnified under the low temperatures of the first planting. Biozyme™ treatment significantly improved emergence rate, percent emergence, final stand and number of ears of sweet corn in the first planting, and the percent emergence final stand, plant dry weight, and number of ears in the second planting. In beans, however, Biozyme™ treatment significantly reduced emergence rate, percent emergence. and final stand in the first planting, while significantly increasing percent emergence, plant dry weight, and seed dry weight in the second planting. The beneficial effects of Biozyme™ appeared to be independent of the negative effects of pesticide overdoses.